A stochastic exposure assessment model for estimating intake of vanadium by beef cattle used as sentinels within the South African vanadium mining industry

Gummow, B., Kirsten, W.F.A, Gummow, R.J., and Heesterbeek, J.A.P (2006) A stochastic exposure assessment model for estimating intake of vanadium by beef cattle used as sentinels within the South African vanadium mining industry. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 76 (3). pp. 167-184.

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Abstract

This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on extrapolating information from the point source (e.g. stack height, exit velocity, exit diameter) to the point of exposure. (2) It incorporates the physiological constraints of the species exposed. (3) It takes into account oral as well as inhalation exposure. (4) It addresses terrain, by using measurements at the point of exposure. (5) It accounts for existing background concentrations of pollutants and pollutants from multiple sources. (6) It uses a stochastic process with distribution functions to account for variability in the data over time. Environmental inputs into the model included aerial fall-out sample vanadium (n = 566), unwashed grass sample vanadium (n = 342) and soluble soil sample vanadium (n = 342). Physiological cattle inputs were derived from two cohorts of Brahman-cross sentinel cattle (n = 30). The model provided an estimate of the chronic external exposure dose of vanadium for two separate groups of cattle grazing over a 5-year period (1999–2004) immediately adjacent (median dose = 2.14 mg vanadium/kg body weight/day) and 2 km away (median dose = 1.07 mg/kg/day) from a South African vanadium-processing plant, respectively. The final output of the model is a distribution curve of the probable vanadium intake based on the variability within the inputs over the 5-year period of the study. The model is adaptable enough for application to other transition metals and species (including man), and could be used as an alternative to plume-dispersion modelling.

Item ID: 8996
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-1716
Keywords: environmental epidemiology; Vanadium; pollution; cattle; model; transition metals and exposure assessment
Date Deposited: 09 Mar 2010 06:01
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070704 Veterinary Epidemiology @ 60%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111705 Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety @ 40%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8398 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production > 839899 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production not elsewhere classified @ 40%
92 HEALTH > 9205 Specific Population Health (excl. Indigenous Health) > 920599 Specific Population Health (excl. Indigenous Health) not elsewhere classified @ 20%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960507 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Marine Environments @ 40%
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