Chronic vanadium poisoning in calves and its treatment with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate

Gummow, B., Botha, C.J., and Williams, M.C. (2006) Chronic vanadium poisoning in calves and its treatment with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Veterinary Research Communications, 30 (7). pp. 807-822.

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Sixteen Friesland heifer calves aged between 96 and 157 days were removed from a dairy farm that had been polluted with vanadium and randomly allocated into two equal groups (n = 8). The objective of the trial was to determine whether calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa2EDTA) could be used as a treatment for cattle running in environments high in background vanadium. The treatment group received 80 mg CaNa2EDTA per kg body weight intraperitonealy (i.p.) twice a week over a 10-week period. The control group received normal saline i.p. over the same period. During the trial calves were exposed to a daily intake of vanadium in the form of contaminated tef hay derived from the farm of origin. In addition, the total mixed ration was spiked with a further 20 mg V2O5/kg feed to compensate for possible on-farm inhalation exposure. A stochastic model was used to estimate daily intake of vanadium as a distribution function. The model estimated that the daily intake of vanadium varied between an absolute minimum of 33 mg/day to an absolute maximum of 124 mg/day. The average intake of vanadium was 71.8 mg per day per calf. Various chemical pathology parameters were measured throughout the trial as well as urine excretion rates of vanadium and lymphocyte stimulation counts. All calves were slaughtered and necropsied in cohorts of 4–6 animals at monthly intervals after completion of the trial and withdrawal of vanadium from the ration. Tissue concentrations of vanadium were determined and necropsy findings were noted. The study found that CaNa2EDTA appears to enhance the excretion of vanadium in calves, but could not prove that the treatment had a protective effect against vanadium exposure. Calves were able to tolerate the prolonged treatment with CaNa2EDTA without side-effects.

Item ID: 8989
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1573-7446
Keywords: cattle; CaNa2EDTA; chronic toxicity; excretion; symptoms; treatment; vanadium
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2010 03:54
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070704 Veterinary Epidemiology @ 50%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 50%
SEO Codes: 84 MINERAL RESOURCES (excl. Energy Resources) > 8498 Environmentally Sustainable Mineral Resource Activities > 849899 Environmentally Sustainable Mineral Resource Activities not elsewhere classified @ 10%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences @ 30%
83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8398 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production > 839899 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production not elsewhere classified @ 60%
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