How can we help you? A qualitative study of the provision of care to culturally and linguistically diverse clients in community pharmacy

Filmer, Tamara Raisa, Ray, Robin A., and Glass, Beverley D. (2023) How can we help you? A qualitative study of the provision of care to culturally and linguistically diverse clients in community pharmacy. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 31 (6). pp. 601-607.

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Objectives: Clients from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds experience challenges in receiving care from community pharmacies, resulting in poorer health outcomes compared with the majority population. The aim of this study was to explore migrants' and pharmacy staff's understanding of the facilitators for the delivery of care to CALD clients.

Methods: Focus groups were conducted with predominantly older, female Nepali-speaking migrants. Individual interviews were undertaken with pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. Verbatim and translated transcripts were inductively coded to establish themes.

Key findings: Three major themes emerged: getting the message across, building trust, and improving understanding. Key findings included the need to increase the use of professional interpreters, and empathy and patience from pharmacy staff. Modifications to communication using re-phrasing and more detail about the community pharmacy system in post-arrival orientation for migrants are required.

Conclusions: Multilingual staff is an effective way to overcome the language barrier, but its use is limited by staff resources. Pharmacy staff should be required to use the services of professional telephone interpreters to surmount language barriers. Modification of communication techniques and having an empathetic attitude improve communication and care provision. Pharmacists should liaise with migrant support services to provide orientation for new arrivals.

Item ID: 81554
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2042-7174
Keywords: barriers, community pharmacist, facilitators, pharmacy assistant
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2024 01:00
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3214 Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences > 321403 Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2005 Specific population health (excl. Indigenous health) > 200505 Migrant health @ 100%
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