Glutathione is required for growth and cadmium tolerance in the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

Webb, Rebecca J., Rush, Catherine, Berger, Lee, Skerratt, Lee F., and Roberts, Alexandra A. (2023) Glutathione is required for growth and cadmium tolerance in the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Biochimie, 220. pp. 22-30.

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Abstract

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a lethal amphibian pathogen, partly due to its ability to evade the immune system of susceptible frog species. In many pathogenic fungi, the antioxidant glutathione is a virulence factor that helps neutralize oxidative stressors generated from host immune cells, as well as other environmental stressors such as heavy metals. The role of glutathione in stress tolerance in Bd has not been investigated. Here, we examine the changes in the glutathione pool after stress exposure and quantify the effect of glutathione depletion on cell growth and stress tolerance. Depletion of glutathione repressed growth and release of zoospores, indicating that glutathione is essential for life cycle completion in Bd. Supplementation with <2 mM exogenous glutathione accelerated zoospore development, but concentrations >2 mM were strongly inhibitory to Bd cells. While hydrogen peroxide exposure lowered the total cellular glutathione levels by 42 %, glutathione depletion did not increase the sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Exposure to cadmium increased total cellular glutathione levels by 93 %. Glutathione-depleted cells were more sensitive to cadmium, and this effect was attenuated by glutathione supplementation, suggesting that glutathione plays an important role in cadmium tolerance. The effects of heat and salt were exacerbated by the addition of exogenous glutathione. The impact of glutathione levels on Bd stress sensitivity may help explain differences in host susceptibility to chytridiomycosis and may provide opportunities for synergistic therapeutics

Item ID: 81406
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1638-6183
Copyright Information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: ARC DP220101361
Date Deposited: 01 Jan 2024 23:28
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3109 Zoology > 310905 Animal immunology @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310703 Microbial ecology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1803 Fresh, ground and surface water systems and management > 180302 Control of pests, diseases and exotic species in fresh, ground and surface water @ 40%
18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1803 Fresh, ground and surface water systems and management > 180303 Fresh, ground and surface water biodiversity @ 30%
18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1806 Terrestrial systems and management > 180602 Control of pests, diseases and exotic species in terrestrial environments @ 30%
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