Ongoing declines for the world’s amphibians in the face of emerging threats

Luedtke, Jennifer A., Chanson, Janice, Neam, Kelsey, Hobin, Louise, Maciel, Adriano O, Catenazzi, Alessandro, Borzée, Amaël, Hamidy, Amir, Aowphol, Anchalee, Jean, Anderson, Sosa-Bartuano, Ángel, Fong G, Ansel, de Silva, Anslem, Fouquet, Antoine, Angulo, Ariadne, Kidov, Artem A., Muñoz Saravia, Arturo, Diesmos, Arvin C., Tominaga, Atsushi, Shrestha, Biraj, Gratwicke, Brian, Tjaturadi, Burhan, Martínez Rivera, Carlos C., Vásquez Almazán, Carlos R., Señaris, Celsa, Chandramouli, S.R., Strüssmann, Christine, Cortez Fernández, Claudia Fabiola, Azat, Claudio, Hoskin, Conrad J., Hilton-Taylor, Craig, Whyte, Damion L., Gower, David J., Olson, Deanna H., Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F., Santana, Diego José, Nagombi, Elizah, Najafi-Majd, Elnaz, Quah, Evan S.H., Bolaños, Federico, Xie, Feng, Brusquetti, Francisco, Álvarez, Francisco S, Andreone, Franco, Glaw, Frank, Castañeda, Franklin Enrique, Kraus, Fred, Parra-Olea, Gabriela, Chaves, Gerardo, Medina-Rangel, Guido F., González-Durán, Gustavo, Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio, Machado, Iberê F., Das, Indraneil, Dias, Iuri Ribeiro, Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolas, Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka, Yang, Jian-Huan, Jianping, Jiang, Wangyal, Jigme Tshelthrim, Rowley, Jodi J.L., Measey, John, Vasudevan, Karthikeyan, Chan, Kin Onn, Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva, Ovaska, Kristiina, Warr, Lauren C., Canseco-Márquez, Luis, Toledo, Luís Felipe, Díaz, Luis M., Khan, M. Monirul H., Meegaskumbura, Madhava, Acevedo, Manuel E., Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras, Ponce, Marcos A., Vaira, Marcos, Lampo, Margarita, Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H., Scherz, Mark D., Rödel, Mark-Oliver, Matsui, Masafumi, Fildor, Maxon, Kusrini, Mirza D., Ahmed, Mohammad Firoz, Rais, Muhammad, Kouamé, N’Goran G.G., García, Nieves, Gonwouo, Nono Legrand, Burrowes, Patricia A., Imbun, Paul Y., Wagner, Philipp, Kok, Philippe J.R., Joglar, Rafael L., Auguste, Renoir J., Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque, Ibanez, Roberto, von May, Rudolf, Hedges, S. Blair, Biju, S.D., Ganesh, S.R., Wren, Sally, Das, Sandeep, Flechas, Sandra V., Ashpole, Sara L., Robleto-Hernández, Silvia J., Loader, Simon P., Incháustegui, Sixto J., Garg, Sonali, Phimmachak, Somphouthone, Richards, Stephen J., Slimani, Tahar, Osborne-Naikatini, Tamara, Abreu-Jardim, Tatianne P. F., Condez, Thais H., De Carvalho, Thiago R., Cutajar, Timothy P., Pierson, Todd W., Nguyen, Truong Q., Kaya, Uğur, Yuan, Zhiyong, Long, Barney, Langhammer, Penny, and Stuart, Simon N. (2023) Ongoing declines for the world’s amphibians in the face of emerging threats. Nature, 622 (7982). pp. 308-314.

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Systematic assessments of species extinction risk at regular intervals are necessary for informing conservation action1,2. Ongoing developments in taxonomy, threatening processes and research further underscore the need for reassessment3,4. Here we report the findings of the second Global Amphibian Assessment, evaluating 8,011 species for the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. We find that amphibians are the most threatened vertebrate class (40.7% of species are globally threatened). The updated Red List Index shows that the status of amphibians is deteriorating globally, particularly for salamanders and in the Neotropics. Disease and habitat loss drove 91% of status deteriorations between 1980 and 2004. Ongoing and projected climate change effects are now of increasing concern, driving 39% of status deteriorations since 2004, followed by habitat loss (37%). Although signs of species recoveries incentivize immediate conservation action, scaled-up investment is urgently needed to reverse the current trends.

Item ID: 80832
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1476-4687
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2023, corrected publication 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2024 07:01
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3103 Ecology > 310308 Terrestrial ecology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1806 Terrestrial systems and management > 180606 Terrestrial biodiversity @ 100%
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