Compliance – The ‘Achilles heel’ of protected areas

Bergseth, Brock, and Day, Jon C. (2023) Compliance – The ‘Achilles heel’ of protected areas. Marine Policy, 155. 105728.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (355kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Recent trends for rapidly establishing large protected areas demonstrate ongoing global interest in protected our remaining natural environments. However laudatory, these efforts rely on a significant, but uncertain assumption: that this protection will be effective. Unfortunately, many past efforts have been ineffective due to numerous types of implementation failures. We focus on one of the most pervasive and notoriously difficult reasons for failure - the inability to substantially reduce ongoing non-compliance in protected areas. We contend that this globally prevalent phenomenon is a symptom of fragmentary, reactive efforts to address compliance issues. This is best addressed by developing a rigorous, systematic approach to compliance management in protected areas. We are working with a team of compliance experts to finalise such a framework and approach, which will serve as the first step in an ongoing journey and discussion, as well as a cornerstone for building a global community of practice to address this issue.

Item ID: 79190
Item Type: Article (Short Note)
ISSN: 1872-9460
Keywords: Adaptive management, Compliance, Enforcement, Illegal behaviour, Implementation failures, Marine protected areas
Copyright Information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Date Deposited: 20 May 2024 01:23
FoR Codes: 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410404 Environmental management @ 100%
SEO Codes: 19 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL HAZARDS > 1902 Environmental policy, legislation and standards > 190299 Environmental policy, legislation and standards not elsewhere classified @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 9
Last 12 Months: 8
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page