Targeting IgE and Th2-Cytokines in Allergy: Brief Updates on Monoclonal Antibodies and Antibody Gene Therapy

Ezechukwu, Henry C., Adegboye, Oyelola A., Okunowo, Wahab, and Emeto, Theophilus I. (2023) Targeting IgE and Th2-Cytokines in Allergy: Brief Updates on Monoclonal Antibodies and Antibody Gene Therapy. Allergies, 3 (2). pp. 90-104.

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The search for an effective treatment of allergic conditions is an ongoing global health challenge due to the high prevalence of allergies. Epinephrine and glucocorticosteroids remain the oldest and most widely used treatment regimen for allergy, and these medications are for short relief. In extreme allergy manifestations, the current treatment options aim to use monoclonal antibody (mAb) to target pathological pathways of inflammation involving mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils. These cells have the propensity to induce an allergic-inflammatory response. Studies have shown that they are responsible for several allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. Studies evaluating monoclonal antibodies against serum IgE (Omalizumab), Th-2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-13 (dupilumab), and IL-5 suggest an attenuation of allergic symptoms and improvement in patients’ overall well-being. However, several factors such as cost of production (i.e., antibody purification), host immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy have hindered the availability of purified mAb in developing countries. Gene therapy is a promising tool for treating allergy, and emerging studies have suggested that antibody gene therapy may be the future for treating extreme cases of allergy manifestations. This paper describes the use of purified monoclonal antibodies for treating severe allergic responses and the associated limitations. It explores the prospects of antibody gene therapy for modulating allergy episodes.

Item ID: 79127
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2313-5786
Copyright Information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2023 03:45
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320401 Allergy @ 60%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420605 Preventative health care @ 40%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200102 Efficacy of medications @ 50%
20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200412 Preventive medicine @ 50%
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