Modeling the Factors Associated with Incomplete Immunization among Children

Faisal, Shahla, Zahid, Faisal Maqbool, Kamal, Shahid, Shahzad, Khawar, Seidu, Abdul-Aziz, and Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku (2022) Modeling the Factors Associated with Incomplete Immunization among Children. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2022. 8460837.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (519kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Immunization is a precautionary measure that helps to stop diseases before their occurrence. Vaccine-preventable diseases are a primary cause of death among children under the age of five in many developing nations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the immunization status and associated demographic characteristics among children aged 12-23 months in Punjab, Pakistan. The study used the data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) for Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected from caregivers using interviewer-administered questionnaires. To summarize the data, descriptive statistics are computed, and logistic regression is used to identify the significant factors that are responsible for complete immunization among the children in Punjab. Odds ratios, 95% CI, and Chi-square statistics were computed to identify the factors associated with no or partial immunization. The prevalence of complete immunization coverage was 89.1%. Women in the rich wealth quantile had the highest odds of completing the immunization for their children (AOR = 2.314; 95% CI: 1.642-3.261) compared to those who are poor. Those in rural areas were more likely to fully vaccinate their children (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.232-1.925) compared to those in urban areas. Those in the highest level of the educational group (AOR = 2.639; 95% CI: 1.800-3.87) are more likely to complete vaccination for their children compared to those with no formal education. However, female children are less likely to complete immunization compared to male children (AOR = 0.813; 95% CI: 0.687-0.963). The immunization status of children shows a significant association with maternal education, wealth status, and area of residence.

Item ID: 78051
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1563-5147
Copyright Information: © 2022 Shahla Faisal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Date Deposited: 14 May 2023 23:47
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420205 Epidemiological modelling @ 80%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420605 Preventative health care @ 0%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420699 Public health not elsewhere classified @ 20%
Downloads: Total: 357
Last 12 Months: 57
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page