Effect of savirin in the prevention of biofilm-related Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection

Pant, Narayan, Miranda-Hernandez, Socorro, Rush, Catherine, Warner, Jeffrey, and Eisen, Damon P. (2022) Effect of savirin in the prevention of biofilm-related Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13. 989417.

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Background: Most of the arthroplasty surgery failure due to prosthetic joint infections (PJI) is caused by biofilm-associated Staphylococcus aureus. In a recent experimental study, savirin has been used to prevent and treat S. aureus skin infections in animal models. We explored the application of savirin in a PJI mouse model to determine its utility as an adjunct therapy to prevent PJI.

Materials and methods: The in-vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of savirin, with or without antibiotics (cefazolin, rifampicin, and vancomycin), against S. aureus were investigated using broth microdilution and crystal violet staining method, respectively. The effect of savirin treatment on the expression of the key biofilm-related genes (icaA, icaD, eno, fib, ebps, and agr) in S. aureus was studied using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR). The in-vivo efficacy of savirin alone and with cefazolin to prevent S. aureus PJI was determined using a clinically relevant PJI mouse model. Mice were randomized into five groups (n = 8/group): 1) infected K-wire savirin treated group, 2) infected K-wire cefazolin treated group, 3) infected K-wire savirin plus cefazolin treated group, 4) infected K-wire PBS treated group, 5) sterile K-wire group. Savirin was administered subcutaneously immediately post-surgery and intravenous cefazolin was given on day seven.

Results: Savirin inhibited planktonic and biofilm in-vitro growth of S. aureus, showed enhanced inhibitory activity when combined with antibiotics, and down-regulated the expression of key S. aureus biofilm-related genes (icaA, icaD, eno, fib, ebps, and agr). Savirin significantly reduced bacterial counts on joint implants in comparison with the PBS treated control, while savirin plus cefazolin reduced bacterial counts on both implants and peri-prosthetic tissues.

Conclusion: Savirin adjuvant therapy may prevent biofilm formation and S. aureus PJI. This study gives baseline data for using savirin for the prevention as well as treatment of S. aureus PJI in future animal studies.

Item ID: 77194
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1663-9812
Copyright Information: © 2022 Pant, Miranda-Hernandez, Rush, Warner and Eisen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Date Deposited: 17 Jan 2023 01:24
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3207 Medical microbiology > 320701 Medical bacteriology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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