The epidemiological trend of monkeypox and monkeypox-varicella zoster viruses co-infection in North-Eastern Nigeria

Stephen, Roland, Alele, Faith, Olumoh, Jamiu, Tyndall, Jennifer, Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi, and Adegboye, Oyelola (2022) The epidemiological trend of monkeypox and monkeypox-varicella zoster viruses co-infection in North-Eastern Nigeria. Frontiers in Public Health, 10. 1066589.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Background: Monkeypox (MPX) is endemic in Nigeria, but it was first reported in Adamawa state, North-Eastern Nigeria, in January 2022. There are currently 172 cases of MPX in Nigeria, with four reported deaths, and Adamawa has the second-highest case count. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the epidemiological profile of this viral disease.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The skin and blood samples were screened for the presence for Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) DNA by real-time PCR; the clinical diagnosis was based on symptoms of visual signs of skin lesions and other clinical symptoms from January to July 2022.

Results: A total of 33 suspected cases aged 1–57 years [26 (79%) males vs. 7 (21%) females] were screened for MPX and VZV. Twenty-four (72.7%) were positive (6.1% were MPX only, 39% were VZV only, and 27% were both MPX and VZV). Most cases of MPX (82%), VZV (69%) and MPX-VZV co-infection (78%) occurred in males. More than half (54%) of those infected were children and adolescents between 0 and 19 years. All patients experienced body rashes and itching, and other clinical symptoms included fever, headache, mouth sores, muscle aches and lymphadenopathy. Over 64 and 86% of patients had contact with livestock and rodents, respectively.

Conclusion: MPXV, VZV and MPXV-VZV co-infections occurred predominantly among males and children in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Given the patient contact with rodents and livestock, further research on the animal reservoir is needed to highlight the transmission of MPXV in Adamawa.

Item ID: 77119
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2296-2565
Copyright Information: © 2022 Stephen, Alele, Olumoh, Tyndall, Okeke and Adegboye. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Date Deposited: 04 Jan 2023 22:07
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310702 Infectious agents @ 40%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300905 Veterinary epidemiology @ 30%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420203 Environmental epidemiology @ 30%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200404 Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response) @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 311
Last 12 Months: 115
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page