The relationship between Hikikomori risk factors and social withdrawal tendencies among emerging adults — An exploratory study of Hikikomori in Singapore

Lin, Patrick K.F., Andrew, , Koh, Alethea H.Q., and Liew, Kongmeng (2022) The relationship between Hikikomori risk factors and social withdrawal tendencies among emerging adults — An exploratory study of Hikikomori in Singapore. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13. 1065304.

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Introduction: Once a localized Japanese phenomenon, Hikikomori-type social withdrawal has since been observed globally in increasing numbers. However, there is a lack of research about Hikikomori in Singapore. Consequently, local variations of Hikikomori may differ from past research in Japan. Drawing on associations found in international and Japanese Hikikomori research, we explored some variables relevant and generalizable to the Singaporean context. Specifically, we examined the relationships between (1) Hikikomori risk factors, (2) social withdrawal tendencies, (3) depression and anxiety, (4) connections with family and friends, and (5) employment status.

Methods: In a cross-sectional survey study (N = 416; Mage = 24.90, SDage = 4.79; females = 236, males = 177, undisclosed = 3), participants were provided a Qualtrics link and asked to complete a questionnaire comprising the NHR scale, LSNS-6, DASS-21, ERQ, and HQ-25.

Results: We found that (a) Hikikomori risk factors positively correlated with social withdrawal tendencies and depression and anxiety but negatively correlated with support from family and friends, (b) high Hikikomori risk factors predicted high social withdrawal tendencies, (c) support from friends (one of the psychosocial factors) predicted social withdrawal tendencies together with the Hikikomori risk factors, and (d) social withdrawal tendencies moderated the relationship between Hikikomori risk factors and depression among the emerging adults in Singapore.

Conclusion: The current research findings serve as a basis for future Hikikomori research in Singapore.

Item ID: 77106
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1664-0640
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2022 Lin, Andrew, Koh and Liew. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2022 23:10
FoR Codes: 52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5203 Clinical and health psychology > 520399 Clinical and health psychology not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280121 Expanding knowledge in psychology @ 100%
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