Geographic patterns of tree dispersal modes in Amazonia and their ecological correlates

Correa, Diego F., Stevenson, Pablo R., Umaña, Maria Natalia, Coelho, Luiz de Souza, Filho, Diógenes de Andrade Lima, Salomão, Rafael P., Leão do Amaral, Iêda, Wittmann, Florian, de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionizia, Castilho, Carolina V., Phillips, Oliver L., Guevara, Juan Ernesto, Carim, Marcelo de Jesus Veiga, Magnusson, William E., Sabatier, Daniel, Molino, Jean-François, Irume, Mariana Victoria, Martins, Maria Pires, da Silva Guimarães, Jose Renan, Banki, Olaf S., Fernandez Piedade, MariaTeresa, Pitman, Nigel C.A., Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel, Ramos, Jose Ferreira, Luize, Bruno Garcia, Moraes de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia, Núñez Vargas, Percy Núñez, Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire, Venticinque, Eduardo Martins, Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto, Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa, Terborgh, John W., Casula, Katia Regina, Honorio Coronado, Euridice N., Montero, Juan Carlos, Schöngart, Jochen, López, Dairon Cárdenas, Costa, Flávia R.C., Quaresma, Adriano Costa, Zartman, Charles Eugene, Killeen, Timothy J., Marimon, Beatriz S., Marimon-junior, Ben Hur, Vásquez, Rodolfo, Mostacedo, Bonifacio, Demarchi, Layon O., Feldpausch, Ted R., Assis, Rafael L., Baraloto, Christopher, Engel, Julien, Petronelli, Pascal, Castellanos, Hernán, Brilhante de Medeiros, Marcelo, Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni, Andrade, Ana, Camargo, José Luís, Laurance, Susan G.W., Laurance, William F., Rincón, Lorena Maniguaje, Schietti, Juliana, Sousa, Thaiane R., de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle, Lopes, Maria Aparecida, Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima, Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça, Lima de Queiroz, Helder, Aymard C., Gerardo A., Brienen, Roel, Cardenas Revilla, Juan David, Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães, Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat, Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira, Duivenvoorden, Joost F., Mogollón, Hugo F., Araujo-murakami, Alejandro, Ferreira, Leandro Valle, Lozada, José Rafael, Comiskey, James A., de Toledo, José Julio, Damasco, Gabriel, Dávila, Nállarett, Garcia-Villacorta, Roosevelt, Lopes, Aline, Vicentini, Alberto, Draper, Freddie C., Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño, Valverde, Fernando, Alonso, Alfonso, Dallmeier, Francisco, Gomes, Vitor H.F., Neill, David, de Aguiar, Daniel P.P., Arroyo, Luzmila, Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes, de Souza, Fernanda Coelho, do Amaral, Dário Dantas, Feeley, Kenneth J., Gribel, Rogerio, Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti, Barlow, Jos, Berenguer, Erika, Ferreira, Joice, Fine, Paul V.A., Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro, Jiménez, Eliana M., Licona, Juan Carlos, Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela, Villa Zegarra, Boris Eduardo, Cerón, Carlos, Fonty, Émile, Henkel, Terry W., Householder, John Ethan, Maas, Paul, Silveira, Marcos, Stropp, Juliana, Thomas, Raquel, Machado Durgante, Flávia, Baker, Tim R., Daly, Doug, Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau, Milliken, William, Pennington, Toby, Paredes, Marcos Ríos, Molina, Pardo, Fuentes, Alfredo, Klitgaard, Bente, Peña, José Luis Marcelo, Peres, Carlos A., Silman, Miles R., Tello, J. Sebastián, Campelo, Wegliane, Chave, Jerome, Di Fiore, Anthony, Hilário, Renato Richard, Phillips, Juan Fernando, Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo, Van Andel, Tinde R., von Hildebrand, Patricio, de Oliveira Pereira, Luciana, Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques, Barbosa, Flávia Rodrigues, de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos, de Sá Carpanedo, Rainiellen, Doza, Hilda Paulette Dávila, Gomez, Ricardo Zarate, Gonzales, Therany, Gonzales, George Pepe Gallardo, Hoffman, Bruce, Junqueira, André Braga, Malhi, Yadvinder, de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula, Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite, Prieto, Adriana, de Jesus Rodrigues, Domingos, Rudas, Agustín, Ruschell, Ademir R., Silva, Natalino, Vela, César I.A., Vos, Vincent Antoine, Zent, Stanford, Zent, Egleé L., Noronha, Janaína Costa, Albuquerque, Bianca Weiss, Cano, Angela, Márquez, Yrma Andreina Carrero, Costa, Janaina Barbosa Pedrosa, Flores, Bernardo Monteiro, Galbraith, David, Holmgren, Milena, Kalamandeen, Michelle, Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade, Oliveira, Alexandre A., Ramírez-angulo, Hirma, Rocha, Maira, Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni, Sierra, Rodrigo, Tirado, Milton, Van Der Heijden, Geertje, Torre, Emilio Vilanova, Vriesendorp, Corine, Pombo, Maihyra Marina, Reategui, Manuel Augusto Ahuite, Baider, Claudia, Balslev, Henrik, Cárdenas, Sasha, Casas, Luisa Fernanda, Farfan-Rios, William, Ferreira, Cid, Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo, Mendoza, Casimiro, Mesones, Italo, Torres-lezama, Armando, Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego, Villarroel, Daniel, Zagt, Roderick, Parada, Germaine Alexander, Alexiades, Miguel N., de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida, Garcia-Cabrera, Karina, Hernandez, Lionel, Cuenca, Walter Palacios, Pansini, Susamar, Pauletto, Daniela, Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez, Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe, Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H., Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela, and Ter Steege, Hans (2022) Geographic patterns of tree dispersal modes in Amazonia and their ecological correlates. Global Ecology and Biogeography. (In Press)

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Abstract

Aim: To investigate the geographic patterns and ecological correlates in the geographic distribution of the most common tree dispersal modes in Amazonia (endozoochory, synzoochory, anemochory and hydrochory). We examined if the proportional abundance of these dispersal modes could be explained by the availability of dispersal agents (disperser-availability hypothesis) and/or the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits (resource-availability hypothesis).

Time period: Tree-inventory plots established between 1934 and 2019. Major taxa studied: Trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 9.55 cm.

Location: Amazonia, here defined as the lowland rain forests of the Amazon River basin and the Guiana Shield.

Methods: We assigned dispersal modes to a total of 5433 species and morphospecies within 1877 tree-inventory plots across terra-firme, seasonally flooded, and permanently flooded forests. We investigated geographic patterns in the proportional abundance of dispersal modes. We performed an abundance-weighted mean pairwise distance (MPD) test and fit generalized linear models (GLMs) to explain the geographic distribution of dispersal modes.

Results: Anemochory was significantly, positively associated with mean annual wind speed, and hydrochory was significantly higher in flooded forests. Dispersal modes did not consistently show significant associations with the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits. A lower dissimilarity in dispersal modes, resulting from a higher dominance of endozoochory, occurred in terra-firme forests (excluding podzols) compared to flooded forests.

Main conclusions: The disperser-availability hypothesis was well supported for abiotic dispersal modes (anemochory and hydrochory). The availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits seems an unlikely explanation for the distribution of dispersal modes in Amazonia. The association between frugivores and the proportional abundance of zoochory requires further research, as tree recruitment not only depends on dispersal vectors but also on conditions that favour or limit seedling recruitment across forest types.

Item ID: 76730
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1466-8238
Keywords: Amazonian rain forests, anemochory, dispersal agents, disperser-availability hypothesis, endozoochory, flooded forests, hydrochory, resource-availability hypothesis, synzoochory, terra-firme forests
Copyright Information: © 2022 The Authors. Global Ecology and Biogeography published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2022 06:31
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3103 Ecology > 310308 Terrestrial ecology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1806 Terrestrial systems and management > 180606 Terrestrial biodiversity @ 100%
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