Nitrogen fertilizer rate but not form affects the severity of Fusarium wilt in banana

Orr, Ryan, Dennis, Paul G., Wong, Yide, Browne, Daniel J., Cooper, Martha, Birt, Henry W.G., Lapis-Gaza, Hazel R., Pattison, Anthony B., and Nelson, Paul N. (2022) Nitrogen fertilizer rate but not form affects the severity of Fusarium wilt in banana. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13. 907819.

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Abstract

Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are routinely applied to bananas (Musa spp.) to increase production but may exacerbate plant diseases like Fusarium wilt of banana (FWB), which is the most economically important disease. Here, we characterized the effects of N rate and form on banana plant growth, root proteome, bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere, the concentration of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) in the soil, and the FWB severity. Banana plants (Musa subgroup ABB) were grown under greenhouse conditions in soil with ammonium or nitrate supplemented at five N rates, and with or without inoculation with Foc. The growth of non-inoculated plants was positively correlated with the N rate. In bananas inoculated with Foc, disease severity increased with the N rate, resulting in the Foc-inoculated plant growth being greatest at intermediate N rates. The abundance of Foc in the soil was weakly related to the treatment conditions and was a poor predictor of disease severity. Fungal diversity was consistently affected by Foc inoculation, while bacterial diversity was associated with changes in soil pH resulting from N addition, in particular ammonium. N rate altered the expression of host metabolic pathways associated with carbon fixation, energy usage, amino acid metabolism, and importantly stress response signaling, irrespective of inoculation or N form. Furthermore, in diseased plants, Pathogenesis-related protein 1, a key endpoint for biotic stress response and the salicylic acid defense response to biotrophic pathogens, was negatively correlated with the rate of ammonium fertilizer but not nitrate. As expected, inoculation with Foc altered the expression of a wide range of processes in the banana plant including those of defense and growth. In summary, our results indicate that the severity of FWB was negatively associated with host defenses, which was influenced by N application (particularly ammonium), and shifts in microbial communities associated with ammonium-induced acidification.

Item ID: 76622
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1664-462X
Keywords: disease triangle, proteomics, ammonium, nitrate, qPCR, banana, nitrogen fertilisation, Fusarium wilt (causal agent Fusarium oxysporum)
Copyright Information: © 2022 Orr, Dennis, Wong, Browne, Cooper, Birt, Lapis-Gaza, Pattison and Nelson. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Funders: Hort Innovation
Projects and Grants: BA14014
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2022 00:52
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3004 Crop and pasture production > 300407 Crop and pasture nutrition @ 20%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3008 Horticultural production > 300804 Horticultural crop protection (incl. pests, diseases and weeds) @ 40%
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4106 Soil sciences > 410603 Soil biology @ 40%
SEO Codes: 26 PLANT PRODUCTION AND PLANT PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 2605 Horticultural crops > 260516 Tropical fruit @ 100%
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