Performance of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test (Schistosoma ICT IgG-IgM) for detecting Schistosoma-specific antibodies in sera of endemic and non-endemic populations

Hoermann, Julie, Kuenzli, Esther, Schaefer, Carmen, Paris, Daniel H., Bühler, Silja, Odermatt, Peter, Sayasone, Somphou, Neumayr, Andreas, and Nickel, Beatrice (2022) Performance of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test (Schistosoma ICT IgG-IgM) for detecting Schistosoma-specific antibodies in sera of endemic and non-endemic populations. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16 (5). e0010463.

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Background: Schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by human pathogenic Schistosoma species, is a neglected tropical disease affecting more than 220 million people worldwide.

For diagnosis of schistosomiasis, stool and urine microscopy for egg detection is still the recommended method, however sensitivity of these methods is limited. Therefore, other methods like molecular detection of DNA in stool, detection of circulating cathodic antigen in urine or circulating anodic antigen in urine and serum, as well as serological tests have gained more attention. This study examines the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic test based on immunochromatography (Schistosoma ICT IgG-IgM, LD Bio, Lyon, France) for simultaneous detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in serum, against Schistosoma spp. in endemic and non-endemic populations.

Methodology/Principal findings: Frozen banked serum samples from patients with confirmed schistosomiasis, patients with other helminth infections, patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and healthy blood donors were used to assess the sensitivity and the specificity of the Schistosoma ICT IgG-IgM rapid diagnostic test.

The test showed a sensitivity of 100% in patients with parasitologically confirmed schistosomiasis, irrespective of the species (S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mekongi). In healthy blood donors and patients with rheumatoid factor positive rheumatoid arthritis from Europe, specificity was 100%. However, in serum samples of patients with other tissue invasive helminth infections, the test showed some cross-reactivity, resulting in a specificity of 85%.

Conclusion/Significance: With its high sensitivity, the Schistosoma ICT IgG-IgM rapid diagnostic test is a suitable screening test for detection of Schistosoma specific antibodies, including S. mekongi. However, in populations with a high prevalence of co-infection with other tissue invasive helminths, positive results should be confirmed with other diagnostic assays due to the test’s imperfect specificity.

Item ID: 76614
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1935-2735
Copyright Information: © 2022 Hoermann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2023 01:08
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3207 Medical microbiology > 320704 Medical parasitology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200101 Diagnosis of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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