Pathogenesis of Bohle iridovirus infection in Krefft's freshwater turtle hatchlings (Emydura macquarii krefftii)

Wirth, Wytamma, Forzan, Maria J., Schwarzkopf, Lin, and Ariel, Ellen (2023) Pathogenesis of Bohle iridovirus infection in Krefft's freshwater turtle hatchlings (Emydura macquarii krefftii). Veterinary Pathology, 60 (1). pp. 139-150.

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Ranaviruses have been detected in over 12 families of reptiles including many genera of turtles, tortoises, and terrapins, but the pathogenesis of these infections is still poorly understood. Krefft's river turtle hatchlings (N = 36; Emydura macquarii krefftii) were inoculated intramuscularly with Bohle iridovirus (BIV, Ranavirus, isolate) or saline, and euthanized at 9 timepoints (3 infected and 1 control per timepoint) over a 24-day period. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, and spleen were collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR); internal organs, skin, and oral cavity samples were fixed for histopathological examination. The earliest lesions, at 8 days postinoculation (dpi), were lymphocytic inflammation of the skin and fibrinoid necrosis of regional vessels at the site of inoculation, and mild ulcerative necrosis with lymphocytic and heterophilic inflammation in the oral, nasal, and tongue mucosae. Fibrinonecrotic foci with heterophilic inflammation were detected in spleen and gonads at 16 dpi. Multifocal hepatic necrosis, heterophilic inflammation, and occasional basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed at 20 dpi, along with ulcerative lymphocytic and heterophilic tracheitis and bronchitis. Tracheitis, bronchitis, and rare bone marrow necrosis were present at 24 dpi. Of the viscera tested for ranaviral DNA by PCR, the liver and spleen had the highest viral loads throughout infection, and thus appeared to be major targets of viral replication. Testing of whole blood by qPCR was the most-effective ante-mortem method for detecting ranaviral infection compared with oral swabs. This study represents the first time-dependent pathogenesis study of a ranaviral infection in turtles.

Item ID: 76089
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1544-2217
Keywords: turtles, ranavirus, pathogenesis, diagnostics, Australia, IHC, ISH, qPCR
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2022
Date Deposited: 21 Sep 2022 07:52
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300914 Veterinary virology @ 100%
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