The Supergiant, High-Grade, Paleoproterozoic Metasedimentary Rock- and Shear Vein-Hosted Obuasi (Ashanti) Gold Deposit, Ghana, West Africa

Oliver, Nicholas H.S., Allibone, Andrew, Nugus, Michael, Vargas, Carlos, Jongens, Richard, Peattie, Richard, and Chamberlain, Vaughan A. (2020) The Supergiant, High-Grade, Paleoproterozoic Metasedimentary Rock- and Shear Vein-Hosted Obuasi (Ashanti) Gold Deposit, Ghana, West Africa. In: Simmons, Stuart F., Tutolo, Benjamin M., Barker, Shaun L.L., Goldfarb, Richard J., and Francois, Robert, (eds.) Geology of the World’s Major Gold Deposits and Provinces. Special Publications of the Society of Economic Geologists, 23 . Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, CO, USA, pp. 121-140.

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Obuasi, with a total mineral resource plus past production of 70 Moz, is the largest gold deposit in West Africa, and one of the largest in the world. It is hosted by ~2135 Ma siliciclastic rocks of the Eburnean Kumasi Basin, which were obliquely shortened along an inverted boundary with the older Eoeburnean Ashanti belt to the east. Greenschist facies metamorphism was coeval with mineralization and related alteration at ~2095 Ma. The steeply dipping, ENE-plunging lodes extend over an 8-km strike length and to depths of >2.5 km. They include paragenetically complex gold-rich quartz veins surrounded by refractory auriferous arsenopyrite and closely associated carbonate-muscovite alteration halos in deformed carbonaceous phyllites and subordinate metaigneous host rocks. Gold and arsenic were initially precipitated during deformation-assisted interaction with reduced host rocks at ~350°C and 100 to 200 MPa. The mineralizing fluids were derived primarily from deeper, As-rich metasedimentary sources by basinal fluid expulsion and metamorphic devolatilization triggered by inversion and shortening, followed by transpression. Continued fluid injection during and after the metamorphic peak produced changes in gold fineness, sulfide assemblages, repeated dissolution (stylolites) and reprecipitation of mineralized veins, and a change from early deformed shear-related, sulfide-rich lodes to later quartz-rich lodes that plunge down or across the axes of younger transpressional folds. Channelized fluid flow due to reactivation of basin-edge transfer structures, and/or irregularly distributed gold source rocks, may explain the variation in gold endowment along the former basin boundary.

Item ID: 75432
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 9781629496429
Copyright Information: © 2020 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc
Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2022 02:04
FoR Codes: 37 EARTH SCIENCES > 3705 Geology > 370508 Resource geoscience @ 100%
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