Analysis of daily variation in the release of faecal eggs and coproantigen of Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected dairy cattle and the impact on diagnostic test sensitivity

Kelley, Jane M., Stevenson, Mark A., Rathinasamy, Vignesh, Rawlin, Grant, Beddoe, Travis, and Spithill, Terry W. (2021) Analysis of daily variation in the release of faecal eggs and coproantigen of Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected dairy cattle and the impact on diagnostic test sensitivity. Veterinary Parasitology, 298. 109504.

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Abstract

The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) is a widespread parasite infection in dairy cattle in Victoria, South-eastern Australia. Robust diagnosis of fluke infection is needed in dairy cattle to identify sub-clinical infections which often go unnoticed, causing significant production losses. We tested the coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) and the FlukeFinder faecal egg count kit® on naturally infected cows in a fluke endemic region of Victoria. The aim of the study was to investigate the variation in the release of coproantigens and eggs into faeces over a 5-day period, at the morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) milkings, and to assess the impact of the timing of faecal sample collection on diagnostic test sensitivity. Ten cows were enrolled into the study based on positive F. hepatica faecal egg counts (LFEC) and faecal samples from the ten cows were collected twice daily, at the 7–9 AM and 4–6 PM milking, for five consecutive days. At the conclusion of the sampling period, the cows were euthanized and F. hepatica burden determined at necropsy. A moderate negative correlation between cow age and cELISA optical density (OD) was observed using data from all samples (R -0.63; 95 % CI -0.68 to -0.57). Over the 5-day sampling period, we observed within-animal variation between days for both the cELISA OD (2.6–8.9 fold) and LFEC (5–16 fold), with more variation in values observed in the PM samples for both tests. The correlation with total fluke burden was higher in the AM sampling using both the cELISA and LFEC (R 0.64 and 0.78, respectively). The sensitivity was 100 % for the cELISA using various cut offs from the literature (0.014 OD, 0.030 OD, and 1.3 % or 1.6 % of the positive control). The sensitivity of the FlukeFinder kit® (based on 588 faecal samples and not accounting for lack of independence in the data) was 88 % (95 % CI 85 %–90 %). Seventy one false negatives were recorded from the 588 LFEC tests all of which were observed in the cows with fluke burdens <14 flukes; 42 of the 71 false negative LFECs occurred in one individual cow which had the lowest burden of nine flukes. In dairy cows, the cut-off for production losses due to fasciolosis is estimated at> 10 fluke. Both the cELISA and the LFEC identified all cows that had burdens equal to or greater than this cut-off. Five of the ten cows also exhibited relatively high paramphistome egg counts.

Item ID: 75227
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-2550
Keywords: cELISA, Daily fecal antigen release, Diagnostic test sensitivity, Fasciola hepatica, Fecal egg counts
Copyright Information: © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2022 03:10
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300909 Veterinary parasitology @ 50%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300905 Veterinary epidemiology @ 25%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300904 Veterinary diagnosis and diagnostics @ 25%
SEO Codes: 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1004 Livestock raising > 100401 Beef cattle @ 50%
10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1004 Livestock raising > 100402 Dairy cattle @ 50%
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