Zoonotic malaria transmission and land use change in Southeast Asia: what is known about the vectors

Van de Straat, Bram, Sebayang, Boni, Grigg, Matthew, Staunton, Kyran, Garjito, Triwibowo Ambar, Vythilingham, Indra, Russell, Tanya L., and Burkot, Thomas R. (2022) Zoonotic malaria transmission and land use change in Southeast Asia: what is known about the vectors. Malaria Journal, 21. 109.

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Zoonotic Plasmodium infections in humans in many Southeast Asian countries have been increasing, including in countries approaching elimination of human-only malaria transmission. Most simian malarias in humans are caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, but recent research shows that humans are at risk of many different simian Plasmodium species. In Southeast Asia, simian Plasmodium species are mainly transmitted by mosquitoes in the Anopheles leucosphyrus and Anopheles dirus complexes. Although there is some evidence of species outside the Leucosphyrus Group transmitting simian Plasmodium species, these await confirmation of transmission to humans. The vectors of monkey malarias are mostly found in forests and forest fringes, where they readily bite long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques (the natural reservoir hosts) and humans. How changing land-uses influence zoonotic malaria vectors is still poorly understood. Fragmentation of forests from logging, agriculture and other human activities is associated with increased zoonotic Plasmodium vector exposure. This is thought to occur through altered macaque and mosquito distributions and behaviours, and importantly, increased proximity of humans, macaques, and mosquito vectors. Underlying the increase in vector densities is the issue that the land-use change and human activities create more oviposition sites and, in correlation, increases availably of human blood hosts. The current understanding of zoonotic malaria vector species is largely based on a small number of studies in geographically restricted areas. What is known about the vectors is limited: the data is strongest for distribution and density with only weak evidence for a limited number of species in the Leucosphyrus Group for resting habits, insecticide resistance, blood feeding habits and larval habitats. More data are needed on vector diversity and bionomics in additional geographic areas to understand both the impacts on transmission of anthropogenic land-use change and how this significant disease in humans might be controlled.

Item ID: 75123
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: Zoonotic malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, Leucosphyrus Group, Mosquito vectors, Vector behaviour, Human land-use
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2022 23:01
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3109 Zoology > 310913 Invertebrate biology @ 70%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420699 Public health not elsewhere classified @ 30%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200404 Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response) @ 100%
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