Benefits and drawbacks of statins and non-statin lipid lowering agents in carotid artery disease

Paraskevas, Kosmas I., Gloviczki, Peter, Antignani, Pier Luigi, Comerota, Anthony J., Dardik, Alan, Davies, Alun H., Eckstein, Hans Henning, Faggioli, Gianluca, Fernandes e Fernandes, Jose, Fraedrich, Gustav, Geroulakos, George, Golledge, Jonathan, Gupta, Ajay, Gurevich, Victor S., Jawien, Arkadiusz, Jezovnik, Mateja K., Kakkos, Stavros K., Knoflach, Michael, Lanza, Gaetano, Liapis, Christos D., Loftus, Ian M., Mansilha, Armando, Nicolaides, Andrew N., Pini, Rodolfo, Poredos, Pavel, Proczka, Robert M., Ricco, Jean Baptiste, Rundek, Tatjana, Saba, Luca, Schlachetzki, Felix, Silvestrini, Mauro, Spinelli, Francesco, Stilo, Francesco, Suri, Jasjit S., Svetlikov, Alexei V., Zeebregts, Clark J., Chaturvedi, Seemant, Veith, Frank J., and Mikhailidis, Dimitri P. (2022) Benefits and drawbacks of statins and non-statin lipid lowering agents in carotid artery disease. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 73. pp. 41-47.

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International guidelines strongly recommend statins alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering agents to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels for patients with asymptomatic/symptomatic carotid stenosis (AsxCS/SCS). Lowering LDL-C levels is associated with significant reductions in transient ischemic attack, stroke, cardiovascular (CV) event and death rates. The aim of this multi-disciplinary overview is to summarize the benefits and risks associated with lowering LDL-C with statins or non-statin medications for Asx/SCS patients. The cerebrovascular and CV beneficial effects associated with statins, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and other non-statin lipid-lowering agents (e.g. fibrates, ezetimibe) are reviewed. The use of statins and PCSK9 inhibitors is associated with several beneficial effects for Asx/SCS patients, including carotid plaque stabilization and reduction of stroke rates. Ezetimibe and fibrates are associated with smaller reductions in stroke rates. The side-effects resulting from statin and PCSK9 inhibitor use are also highlighted. The benefits associated with lowering LDL-C with statins or non-statin lipid lowering agents (e.g. PCSK9 inhibitors) outweigh the risks and potential side-effects. Irrespective of their LDL-C levels, all Asx/SCS patients should receive high-dose statin treatment±ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors for reduction not only of LDL-C levels, but also of stroke, cardiovascular mortality and coronary event rates.

Item ID: 74662
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-1740
Keywords: Best medical treatment, Carotid artery stenosis, Carotid artery stenting, Carotid endarterectomy, Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, Statins
Copyright Information: © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 15 Dec 2022 05:57
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 100%
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