The Australian dingo is an early offshoot of modern breed dogs

Field, Matt A., Yadav, Sonu, Dudchenko, Olga, Esvaran, Meera, Rosen, Benjamin D., Skvortsova, Ksenia, Edwards, Richard J., Keilwagen, Jens, Cochran, Blake J., Manandhar, Bikash, Bustamante, Sonia, Rasmussen, Jacob Agerbo, Melvin, Richard G., Chernoff, Barry, Omer, Arina, Colaric, Zane, Chan, Eva K.F., Minoche, Andre E., Smith, Timothy P.L., Gilbert, M.Thomas P., Bogdanovic, Ozren, Zammit, Robert A., Thomas, Torsten, Aiden, Erez L., and Ballard, J. William O. (2022) The Australian dingo is an early offshoot of modern breed dogs. Science Advances, 8 (16). eabm5944.

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Abstract

Dogs are uniquely associated with human dispersal and bring transformational insight into the domestication process. Dingoes represent an intriguing case within canine evolution being geographically isolated for thousands of years. Here, we present a high-quality de novo assembly of a pure dingo (CanFam_DDS). We identified large chromosomal differences relative to the current dog reference (CanFam3.1) and confirmed no expanded pancreatic amylase gene as found in breed dogs. Phylogenetic analyses using variant pairwise matrices show that the dingo is distinct from five breed dogs with 100% bootstrap support when using Greenland wolf as the outgroup. Functionally, we observe differences in methylation patterns between the dingo and German shepherd dog genomes and differences in serum biochemistry and microbiome makeup. Our results suggest that distinct demographic and environmental conditions have shaped the dingo genome. In contrast, artificial human selection has likely shaped the genomes of domestic breed dogs after divergence from the dingo.

Item ID: 74235
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2375-2548
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2022 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC)
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC), National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: ARC Discovery Project DP150102038, NHMRC APP5121190
Date Deposited: 18 May 2022 08:49
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300907 Veterinary medicine (excl. urology) @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310405 Evolutionary ecology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1806 Terrestrial systems and management > 180606 Terrestrial biodiversity @ 100%
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