Consumption-Based CO2 Emissions on Sustainable Development Goals of SAARC Region

Rahman, Mohammad Mazibar, Ahmed, Rafiuddin, Mashud, Abu Hashan Md., Malik, Asif Iqbal, Miah, Sujan, and Abedin, Mohammad Zoynul (2022) Consumption-Based CO2 Emissions on Sustainable Development Goals of SAARC Region. Sustainability, 14 (3). 1467.

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Consumption-based CO2 emission (CBE) accounting shows the possibility of global carbon leakage. Very little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions related to the consumption of products and services and their impact on sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially in the SAARC region. This study used a CBE accounting method to measure the CO2 emissions of five major SAARC member countries. Additionally, a Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (FMOLS) and a causality model were used to investigate the long-term effects of the CBE and SDG variables between 1972 and 2015. The results showed that household consumption contributed more than 62.39% of CO2 emissions overall in the SAARC region. India had the highest household emissions, up to 37.27%, and Nepal contributed the lowest, up to 0.61%. The total imported emissions were the greatest in India (16.88 Gt CO2) and Bangladesh (15.90 Gt CO2). At the same time, the results for the long-term relationships between the CBEs and SDGs of the SAARC region showed that only the combustible renewables and waste (CRW) variable is significant for most of these countries. The sharing of the responsibility for emissions between suppliers and customers could encourage governments and policymakers to make global climate policy and sustainable development decisions,which are currently stalled by questions over geographical and past emission inequities.

Item ID: 73325
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2071-1050
Keywords: carbon intensity; emissions embodied in trade; SDGs; MRIO; environmental sustainability
Copyright Information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2022 21:09
FoR Codes: 35 COMMERCE, MANAGEMENT, TOURISM AND SERVICES > 3501 Accounting, auditing and accountability > 350107 Sustainability accounting and reporting @ 50%
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410402 Environmental assessment and monitoring @ 50%
SEO Codes: 17 ENERGY > 1705 Environmentally sustainable energy activities > 170501 Management of gaseous waste from energy activities (excl. greenhouse gases) @ 50%
19 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL HAZARDS > 1902 Environmental policy, legislation and standards > 190209 Sustainability indicators @ 50%
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