Rural-urban variation in hypertension among women in Ghana: insights from a national survey

Appiah, Francis, Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena, Oduro, Joseph Kojo, Baatiema, Linus, Sambah, Francis, Seidu, Abdul-Aziz, Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku, and Budu, Eugene (2021) Rural-urban variation in hypertension among women in Ghana: insights from a national survey. BMC Public Health, 21 (1). 2150.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (879kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidities in Ghana and represents a major public health concern. There is dearth of information on the rural-urban disparity in hypertension among women in Ghana. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the rural-urban variation in hypertension among women in Ghana.

Methods: We extracted data from the women’s file of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The sample included 9333 women aged 15–49 with complete data on hypertension. The analysis was done using Pearson Chi-square and binary logistic regression at 95% confidence interval. The results of the binary logistic regression were presented as Odds Ratios (ORs) and Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Hypertension prevalence among urban and rural residents were 9.5% and 5.1% respectively. Rural women had lower odds of hypertension [OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.52, 0.67] compared to urban women, however, this was insignificant in the adjusted model [aOR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.70, 1.00]. The propensity to be hypertensive was lower for women aged 15–19 [aOR = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.11]. The poorest were less likely to be hypertensive [aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.89]. Single women were also less probable to have hypertension [aOR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.97].

Conclusions: Women from urban and rural areas shed similar chance to be hypertensive in Ghana. Therefore, the health sector needs to target women from both areas of residence (rural/urban) when designing their programmes that are intended to modify women’s lifestyle in order to reduce their risks of hypertension. Other categories of women that need to be prioritised to avert hypertension are those who are heading towards the end of their reproductive age, richest women and the divorced.

Item ID: 72862
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1471-2458
Keywords: DHS, Ghana, Hypertension, Rural, Urban, Women
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Date Deposited: 25 May 2022 04:49
Downloads: Total: 242
Last 12 Months: 133
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page