Automated COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis with medical imaging and who is publishing: a systematic review

Gillman, Ashley G., Lunardo, Febrio, Prinable, Joseph, Belous, Gregg, Nicolson, Aaron, Min, Hang, Terhorst, Andrew, and Dowling, Jason A. (2022) Automated COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis with medical imaging and who is publishing: a systematic review. Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, 45. pp. 13-29.

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Objectives: To conduct a systematic survey of published techniques for automated diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 diseases using medical imaging, assessing the validity of reported performance and investigating the proposed clinical use-case. To conduct a scoping review into the authors publishing such work.

Methods: The Scopus database was queried and studies were screened for article type, and minimum source normalized impact per paper and citations, before manual relevance assessment and a bias assessment derived from a subset of the Checklist for Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging (CLAIM). The number of failures of the full CLAIM was adopted as a surrogate for risk-of-bias. Methodological and performance measurements were collected from each technique. Each study was assessed by one author. Comparisons were evaluated for significance with a two-sided independent t-test.

Findings: Of 1002 studies identified, 390 remained after screening and 81 after relevance and bias exclusion. The ratio of exclusion for bias was 71%, indicative of a high level of bias in the field. The mean number of CLAIM failures per study was 8.3 +/- 3.9 [1,17] (mean +/- standard deviation [min,max]). 58% of methods performed diagnosis versus 31% prognosis. Of the diagnostic methods, 38% differentiated COVID-19 from healthy controls. For diagnostic techniques, area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) = 0.924 +/- 0.074 [0.810,0.991] and accuracy = 91.7% +/- 6.4 [79.0,99.0]. For prognostic techniques, AUC = 0.836 +/- 0.126 [0.605,0.980] and accuracy = 78.4% +/- 9.4 [62.5,98.0]. CLAIM failures did not correlate with performance, providing confidence that the highest results were not driven by biased papers. Deep learning techniques reported higher AUC (p < 0.05) and accuracy (p < 0.05), but no difference in CLAIM failures was identified.

Interpretation: A majority of papers focus on the less clinically impactful diagnosis task, contrasted with prognosis, with a significant portion performing a clinically unnecessary task of differentiating COVID-19 from healthy. Authors should consider the clinical scenario in which their work would be deployed when developing techniques. Nevertheless, studies report superb performance in a potentially impactful application. Future work is warranted in translating techniques into clinical tools.

Item ID: 72610
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2662-4737
Keywords: Coronavirus, Computed tomography, Chest X-ray, Prognosis, Staging, Diagnosis
Copyright Information: © Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine 2021
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2022 08:18
FoR Codes: 51 PHYSICAL SCIENCES > 5105 Medical and biological physics > 510502 Medical physics @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320206 Diagnostic radiography @ 50%
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