Progress in the development and use of refrigerants and unintended environmental consequences

Vuppaladadiyam, Arun Krishna, Antunes, Elsa, Vuppaladadiyam, Sai Sree, Baig, Zenab Tariq, Subiantoro, Alison, Lei, Guoyuan, Leu, Shao-Yuan, Sarmah, Ajit K., and Duan, Huabo (2022) Progress in the development and use of refrigerants and unintended environmental consequences. Science of the Total Environment, 823. 153670.

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Abstract

The world has entered into the “fourth-generation” of refrigerants, and it is an undeniable fact that we will continue to encounter several issues in identifying a suitable refrigerant that suits the purpose and poses no harm to the environment. The ever-changing regulations on the use of refrigerants have often posed great challenges to the refrigeration industry and there is a pressing need to develop new refrigerants and develop better equipment to use them. Theoretically, an ideal refrigerant should possess characteristics such as low-global warming potential (GWP), non-toxic, nonflammable, and zero-ozone depletion potential (ODP). In addition, the refrigerants are also expected to have excellent thermodynamic and thermophysical properties. Many new synthetic refrigerants have been reported as alternative refrigerants and have very low atmospheric life as well as low GWP and zero-ODP. However, it is irrefutable that most of the studies that reported the so-called new refrigerants are actually not new. From the invention of R-12 (Dichlorodifluoromethane) in 1930s to the invention of R-1234yf in 2000s, these substances are available for decades even before being recognized as refrigerants. This review attempts to provide chronicles on different aspects of refrigerants such as their progress since their invention in the early 1800s, classification and properties. In addition, concepts such as issues associated with the long-term use of refrigerants, barriers for the inclusion of low-GWP refrigerants, various protocols and accords that have occurred since the inception of refrigerants are also critically discussed.

Item ID: 72550
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-1026
Copyright Information: © 2022 Published by Elsevier B.V
Date Deposited: 31 May 2022 23:58
FoR Codes: 40 ENGINEERING > 4017 Mechanical engineering > 401703 Energy generation, conversion and storage (excl. chemical and electrical) @ 10%
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4105 Pollution and contamination > 410599 Pollution and contamination not elsewhere classified @ 90%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1899 Other environmental management > 189999 Other environmental management not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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