Pacing profiles of middle-distance running world records in men and women

Casado, Arturo, Gonzalez-Mohino, Fernando, Gonzalez-Rave, Jose Maria, and Boullosa, Daniel (2021) Pacing profiles of middle-distance running world records in men and women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (23). 12589.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (783kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


The aims of the current study were to compare the pacing patterns of all-time 800 m, 1500 m and mile running world records (WRs) and to determine whether differences exist between sexes, and if 800 m and 1500 m WRs were broken during championship or meet races. Overall and lap times for men and women's 800 m, 1500 m, and mile WRs from World Athletics were collected when available and subsequently compared. A fast initial 200 m segment and a decrease in speed throughout was found during 800 m WRs. Accordingly, the first 200 m and 400 m were faster than the last 200 m and 400 m, respectively (p < 0.001, 0.77 <= ES <= 1.86). The first 400 m and 409 m for 1500 m and mile WRs, respectively, were faster than the second lap (p < 0.001, 0.74 <= ES <= 1.46). The third 400 m lap was slower than the last 300 m lap and 400 m lap for 1500 m and mile WRs, respectively (p < 0.001, 0.48 <= ES <= 1.09). No relevant sex-based differences in pacing strategy were found in any event. However, the first 409 m lap was faster than the last 400 m lap for men but not for women during mile WRs. Women achieved a greater % of WRs than men during championships (80% vs. 45.83% in the 800 m, and 63.63% vs. 31.58% in the 1500 m, respectively). In conclusion, positive, reverse J-shaped and U-shaped pacing profiles were used to break 800 m, men's mile and 1500 m, and women's mile WRs, respectively. WRs are more prone to be broken during championships by women than men.

Item ID: 72289
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1660-4601
Keywords: pacing, middle-distance running, world record, athletics
Copyright Information: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2022 13:01
Downloads: Total: 621
Last 12 Months: 84
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page