Short-term outcome of adenosine–lidocaine–magnesium polarizing cardioplegia in humans

Francica, Alessandra, Vaccarin, Arianna, Dobson, Geoffrey Phillip, Rossetti, Cecilia, Gardellini, Jacopo, Faggian, Giuseppe, and Onorati, Francesco (2021) Short-term outcome of adenosine–lidocaine–magnesium polarizing cardioplegia in humans. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. (In Press)

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Hyperkalaemic depolarized myocardial arrest is the cornerstone of myocardial protection, although some potassiumrelated cytotoxicity has been demonstrated. Polarized arrest has gained interest because of a reported better myocardial protection in preclinical studies. The goal of this study was to analyse the quality of myocardial protection and hospital outcome after normokalaemic adenosine–lidocaine–magnesium (ALM) blood polarizing cardioplegia, compared to hyperkalaemic blood Buckberg depolarizing cardioplegia, in elective routine adult cardiac surgery.

METHODS: One thousand consecutive elective adult cardiac patients [627 undergoing ALM-polarizing cardioplegia (ALM-POL) vs 373 Buckberg depolarized cardioplegia (BUCK-DEPOL)] who were operated on were analysed. Perioperative leakage of high-sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI), peripheral lactate, inotropic and vasoactive daily requirement [maximal vasoactive inotropic score (VISMAX)], hospital mortality and morbidity were collected and compared in the overall population and in the propensity score (PS) matched population (206 pairs).

RESULTS: A significantly lower leakage of Hs-TnI during hospitalization was detected in patients receiving ALM-POL versus those receiving BUCK-DEPOL (group time P < 0.001 for overall population and PS matched pairs). The maximum value of postoperative Hs-TnI was also lower after ALM-POL (P < 0.001 in both cohorts), and spontaneous recovery of sinus rhythm at aortic declamping was higher (P < 0.001 in favour of ALM-POL). Maximal VISMAX during hospitalization was significantly higher after BUCK-DEPOL in both cohorts (P = 0.019 for overall population; P = 0.031 for PS matched population), with significantly higher VISMAX on the day of surgery in BUCK-DEPOL PS matched patients (P = 0.042). No other significant differences in hospital morbidity and mortality were found.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable short-term clinical outcomes, ALM-POL cardioplegia proved superior in terms of quality of myocardial protection compared to BUCK-DEPOL cardioplegia in elective routine adult cardiac surgery.

Item ID: 70987
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-734X
Keywords: Polarizing cardioplegia; Myocardial protection; Adenosine-lidocaine-magnesium cardioplegia
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2021 22:10
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 80%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320226 Surgery @ 20%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 50%
20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200102 Efficacy of medications @ 50%
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