Transmission dynamics in tuberculosis patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 observational studies

Martinez, Leonardo, Woldu, Henok, Chen, Cheng, Hallowell, Benjamin D., Castellanos, Maria Eugenia, Lu, Peng, Liu, Qiao, Whalen, Christopher C., and Zhu, Limei (2020) Transmission dynamics in tuberculosis patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 32 observational studies. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 73 (9). e3446-e3455.

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Abstract

Background There are large knowledge gaps on the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in settings where both tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are endemic. We aimed to assess the infectiousness of tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV.

Methods We systematically searched for studies of contacts of both HIV-positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis index cases. Our primary outcome was Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in contacts. Data on sputum smear and lung cavitation status of index cases were extracted from each study to assess effect modification. Secondary outcomes included prevalent tuberculosis and HIV in contacts of HIV-positive and HIV-negative index cases.

Results Of 5255 original citations identified, 32 studies met inclusion criteria, including 25 studies investigating M. tuberculosis infection (Nparticipants = 36 893), 13 on tuberculosis (Nparticipants = 18 853), and 12 on HIV positivity (Nparticipants = 18 424). Risk of M. tuberculosis infection was lower in contacts of HIV-positive index cases (odds ratio [OR], 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI], .58–.77) but was heterogeneous (I2 = 75.1%). Two factors modified this relationship: the lung cavitary status of the index case and immunosuppression (measured through CD4 counts or HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnoses) among index people living with HIV. Rates of HIV were consistently higher in contacts of coinfected index cases (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 3.0–8.0). This was modified by whether the study was in sub-Saharan Africa (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6–4.9) or in another global region (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 5.9–16.3).

Conclusions Tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV are less infectious than HIV-uninfected cases when they have severe immunosuppression or paucibacillary disease. Contacts of coinfected index cases are almost 5 times more likely to also have HIV.

Item ID: 70963
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1537-6591
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 09 Dec 2021 02:35
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420207 Major global burdens of disease @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420699 Public health not elsewhere classified @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200404 Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response) @ 100%
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