Physiological responses to maximal and submaximal walking in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease

Chehuen, Marcel, Andrade-Lima, Aluisio, Junior, Natan Silva, Miyasato, Roberto, de Souza, Rodrigo W. Alves, Leicht, Anthony, Brum, Patricia Chakur, Oliveira, Edilamar M., Wolosker, Nelson, Forjaz, Cláudia Lucia de Moraes, and UNSPECIFIED (2021) Physiological responses to maximal and submaximal walking in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 117 (2). pp. 309-316.

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Abstract

Background: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. Objectives: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. Methods: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner’s protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre-and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.

Item ID: 70606
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1678-4170
Keywords: Byomarkers, Hemodynamic monitoring, Intermittent claudication, Oxidative stress, Peripheral arterial disease, Walking, Walking speed
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2021 05:33
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4207 Sports science and exercise > 420702 Exercise physiology @ 70%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 30%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200104 Prevention of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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