Immunological responses to envenomation

Ryan, Rachael Y.M., Seymour, Jamie, Loukas, Alex, Lopez, J. Alejandro, Ikonomopoulou, Maria P., and Miles, John J. (2021) Immunological responses to envenomation. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. 661082.

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Venoms are complex mixtures of toxic compounds delivered by bite or sting. In humans, the consequences of envenomation range from self-limiting to lethal. Critical host defence against envenomation comprises innate and adaptive immune strategies targeted towards venom detection, neutralisation, detoxification, and symptom resolution. In some instances, venoms mediate immune dysregulation that contributes to symptom severity. This review details the involvement of immune cell subtypes and mediators, particularly of the dermis, in host resistance and venom-induced immunopathology. We further discuss established venom-associated immunopathology, including allergy and systemic inflammation, and investigate Irukandji syndrome as a potential systemic inflammatory response. Finally, this review characterises venom-derived compounds as a source of immune modulating drugs for treatment of disease.

Item ID: 70404
Item Type: Article (Non-Refereed Research)
ISSN: 1664-3224
Keywords: adaptive immunity, detoxification, immunopathology, innate immunity, Irukandji syndrome, systemic inflammation, venom, venom allergy
Copyright Information: © 2021 Ryan, Seymour, Loukas, Lopez, Ikonomopoulou and Miles. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2022 00:00
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320401 Allergy @ 25%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320403 Autoimmunity @ 25%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320407 Innate immunity @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2099 Other health > 209999 Other health not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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