The potential benefits and costs of an intensified approach to low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in people with abdominal aortic aneurysm

Nastasi, Domenico R., Norman, Richard, Moxon, Joseph V., Quigley, Frank, Velu, Ramesh, Jenkins, Jason, and Golledge, Jonathan (2021) The potential benefits and costs of an intensified approach to low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in people with abdominal aortic aneurysm. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 62 (4). pp. 643-650.

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Abstract

Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of major vascular events (MVE) and peripheral vascular events (PVE) in people with a small asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and model the theoretical benefits and costs of an intensified low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering programme.

Methods: A total of 583 participants with AAAs measuring 30 – 54 mm were included in this study. The control of LDL-C and prescription of lipid lowering drugs were assessed by dividing participants into approximately equal tertiles depending on their year of recruitment into the study. The occurrence of MVE (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, and coronary or non-coronary revascularisation) and PVE (non-coronary revascularisation, AAA repair, and major amputation) were recorded prospectively, and the incidence of these events was calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. The relative risk reduction reported for these events in a previous randomised control trial (RCT) was then applied to these figures to model the absolute risk reduction and numbers needed to treat (NTT) that could theoretically be achieved with a mean LDL-C lowering of 1 mmol/L. The maximum allowable expense for a cost effective intensive LDL-C lowering programme was estimated using a cost utility analysis.

Results: At entry, only 28.5% of participants had an LDL-C of < 1.8 mmol/L and only 18.5% were prescribed a high potency statin (atorvastatin 80 mg or rosuvastatin 40 mg). The five year incidences of MVE and PVE were 38.1% and 44.7%, respectively. It was estimated that if the mean LDL-C of the cohort had been reduced by 1 mmol/L, this could have reduced the absolute risk of MVE and PVE by 6.5% (95% CI 4.4 – 8.7; NNT 15) and 5.3% (95% CI 1.4 – 7.5; NNT 19), respectively. It was estimated that the maximum allowable expense for a cost effective LDL-C lowering programme would be between $1 239 AUD (€768) and $1 582 AUD (€981) per person per annum over a five year period.

Conclusion: People with a small asymptomatic AAA are at high risk of MVE and PVE. This study provides evidence of the possible benefits and allowable expense for a cost effective intensive LDL-C lowering programme in this population.

Item ID: 70091
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1532-2165
Keywords: Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Cholesterol, Cost effectiveness, Prevention
Copyright Information: © 2021 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC 1063476, NHMRC 1000967, NHMRC 1117061
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2021 01:57
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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