Limonene emissions: Do different types have different biological effects?

Nematollahi, Neda, Ross, Perran, Hoffmann, Ary A., Kolev, Spas D., and Steinemann, Anne (2021) Limonene emissions: Do different types have different biological effects? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18. 10505.

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Limonene is one of the most abundant pollutants indoors, and it contributes to the formation of additional pollutants, such as formaldehyde and photochemical smog. Limonene is commonly used in fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies and air fresheners, which have also been associated with health problems. Limonene can exist in different enantiomeric forms (R-limonene and S-limonene) and be derived from different sources. However, little is known about whether different forms and sources of limonene may have different effects. This research explored whether different types of limonene, at the same concentrations, could elicit different biological effects. To investigate this question, the study employed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which have sophisticated olfactory abilities, in olfactometer tests of repellency/attraction. The results indicate that a synthetic source of R-limonene is more repellent than a natural source of R-limonene. In addition, synthetic sources of both R-limonene and S-limonene are not significantly different in repellency. These findings can contribute to our understanding and further exploration of the effects of a common fragrance compound on air quality and health.

Item ID: 70056
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1660-4601
Keywords: Air quality, Attraction, Fragrance, Fragranced consumer products, Health, Limonene, Mosquitoes, Orange oil, Repellency
Copyright Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)
Date Deposited: 11 Apr 2022 22:07
FoR Codes: 40 ENGINEERING > 4005 Civil engineering > 400503 Complex civil systems @ 50%
40 ENGINEERING > 4011 Environmental engineering > 401102 Environmentally sustainable engineering @ 50%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1801 Air quality, atmosphere and weather > 180101 Air quality @ 50%
19 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL HAZARDS > 1902 Environmental policy, legislation and standards > 190299 Environmental policy, legislation and standards not elsewhere classified @ 50%
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