Spatial patterns and multilevel analysis of factors associated with antenatal care visits in Nigeria: insight from the 2018 Nigeria demographic health survey

Bolarinwa, Obasanjo Afolabi, Sakyi, Barbara, Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku, Ajayi, Kobi V., Seidu, Abdul Aziz, Hagan, John Elvis, and Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse (2021) Spatial patterns and multilevel analysis of factors associated with antenatal care visits in Nigeria: insight from the 2018 Nigeria demographic health survey. Healthcare, 9 (10). 1389.

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Abstract

Despite global progress towards antenatal care (ANC) uptake, ANC utilization in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, such as Nigeria, is low. Although several studies have identified the determinants and factors associated with ANC services utilization in Nigeria, there is a gap in knowledge about the spatial patterns in ANC use. Therefore, this study aims to map the spatial distribution and factors associated with ANC visits in Nigeria. A cross-sectional dataset was obtained from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 20,003 women aged 15–49 were considered in this study. Both spatial and multilevel analyses were carried out. The results were presented in spatial maps and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Hot spot areas (high proportion of an incomplete ANC visit) were located in Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfara, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Bauchi, Niger, Borno, Gombe, and Bayelsa. Regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits were found in this study. Maternal age, maternal education, partner’s level of education, working status, ethnicity, parity, religion, exposure to media, place of residence, wealth index, region, and community literacy level were factors associated with incomplete ANC. There is a need to consider these factors in the design and strengthening of existing interventions (e.g., mini-clinics) aimed at increasing ANC visits to help attain maternal health-related Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The regional disparities in incomplete ANC visits also need to be considered by encouraging pregnant women in hotspot areas to attend ANC visits.

Item ID: 70049
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2227-9032
Keywords: Antenatal care visits, Multi-level analysis, Nigeria, Pregnant women, Spatial analysis
Copyright Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Date Deposited: 25 May 2022 03:13
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