Combining genotypic and phenotypic variation in a geospatial framework to identify sources of mussels in northern New Zealand

Gardner, Jonathan P.A., Nunes Soares Silva, Catarina N.S., Norrie, Craig R., and Dunphy, Brendon J. (2021) Combining genotypic and phenotypic variation in a geospatial framework to identify sources of mussels in northern New Zealand. Scientific Reports, 11. 8196.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


The New Zealand green-lipped mussel aquaculture industry is largely dependent on the supply of young mussels that wash up on Ninety Mile Beach (so-called Kaitaia spat), which are collected and trucked to aquaculture farms. The locations of source populations of Kaitaia spat are unknown and this lack of knowledge represents a major problem because spat supply may be irregular. We combined genotypic (microsatellite) and phenotypic (shell geochemistry) data in a geospatial framework to determine if this new approach can help identify source populations of mussels collected from two spat-collecting and four non-spat-collecting sites further south. Genetic analyses resolved differentiated clusters (mostly three clusters), but no obvious source populations. Shell geochemistry analyses resolved six differentiated clusters, as did the combined genotypic and phenotypic data. Analyses revealed high levels of spatial and temporal variability in the geochemistry signal. Whilst we have not been able to identify the source site(s) of Kaitaia spat our analyses indicate that geospatial testing using combined genotypic and phenotypic data is a powerful approach. Next steps should employ analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism markers with shell geochemistry and in conjunction with high resolution physical oceanographic modelling to resolve the longstanding question of the origin of Kaitaia spat.

Item ID: 69988
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2045-2322
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit 0/.
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2022 06:18
Downloads: Total: 136
Last 12 Months: 16
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page