Seasonality modulates the direct and indirect influences of forest cover on larval anopheline assemblages in western Amazônia

Arcos, Adriano Nobre, Valente-Neto, Francisco, da Silva Ferreira, Francisco Augusto, Bolzan, Fábio Padilha, da Cunha, Hillândia Brandão, Tadei, Wanderli Pedro, Hughes, Robert M., and de Oliveira Roque, Fabio (2021) Seasonality modulates the direct and indirect influences of forest cover on larval anopheline assemblages in western Amazônia. Scientific Reports, 11. 12721.

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Serious concerns have arisen regarding urbanization processes in western Amazônia, which result in the creation of artificial habitats, promoting the colonization of malaria vectors. We used structural equation modelling to investigate direct and indirect effects of forest cover on larval habitats and anopheline assemblages in different seasons. We found 3474 larvae in the dry season and 6603 in the rainy season, totalling ten species and confirming the presence of malaria vectors across all sites. Forest cover had direct and indirect (through limnological variables) effects on the composition of larval anopheline assemblages in the rainy season. However, during the dry season, forest cover directly affected larval distribution and habitat variables (with no indirect affects). Additionally, artificial larval habitats promote ideal conditions for malaria vectors in Amazonia, mainly during the rainy season, with positive consequences for anopheline assemblages. Therefore, the application of integrated management can be carried out during both seasons. However, we suggest that the dry season is the optimal time because larval habitats are more limited, smaller in volume and more accessible for applying vector control techniques.

Item ID: 69971
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2045-2322
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Date Deposited: 09 May 2022 00:37
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