Optimization of the cropping pattern of main cereals and improving water productivity: application of the water footprint concept†

Ramezani Etedali, Hadi, Ahmadaali, Khaled, Gorgin, Faraz, and Ababaei, Behnam (2019) Optimization of the cropping pattern of main cereals and improving water productivity: application of the water footprint concept†. Irrigation and Drainage, 68 (4). pp. 765-777.

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Abstract

Different components of water footprint (WF) (green, blue, grey and white) and WF volume (WFV) were estimated for three main cereal crops in Iran (wheat, barley and maize) in the main cereal‐producing provinces. In order to classify the selected provinces according to their corresponding WFVs, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied for clustering the WFV of maize, barley and wheat in irrigated and rainfed conditions. Then, the linear programming (LP) technique was used to determine the optimal cultivated area for cereals in order to minimize the total national WFV in irrigated and rainfed lands. The WFV of wheat, barley and maize production in irrigated lands were estimated to be 25 100, 5980 and 4610 Mm3 yr−1, respectively, under the current practice. The optimized values of WFV under irrigated conditions were 877, 338 and 374 Mm3 yr−1 lower than the current values, implying nearly 3.5, 5.7 and 8.1% achievable reductions. The reduction in rainfed lands was estimated to be 332 Mm3 yr−1 or 2.9% for wheat (from 11 300 to 11 000 Mm3 year−1) and 338 Mm3 yr−1 or 5.7% for barley (from 5950 to 5610 Mm3 yr−1). The results show that by optimizing the cultivated area of the main cereals in Iran, 2,210 Mm3 yr−1 or 4.5% of the national WFV could be saved.

Item ID: 69775
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1531-0361
Keywords: white water footprint; clustering; crop pattern; linear programming
Copyright Information: © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2021 23:51
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3004 Crop and pasture production > 300410 Crop and pasture waste water use @ 50%
37 EARTH SCIENCES > 3707 Hydrology > 370704 Surface water hydrology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 26 PLANT PRODUCTION AND PLANT PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 2601 Environmentally sustainable plant production > 260104 Management of water consumption by plant production @ 100%
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