Control of modifiable risk factors and major adverse cardiovascular events in people with peripheral artery disease and diabetes

Golledge, Jonathan, Drovandi, Aaron, Rowbotham, Sophie, Velu, Ramesh, Quigley, Frank, and Jenkins, Jason (2021) Control of modifiable risk factors and major adverse cardiovascular events in people with peripheral artery disease and diabetes. World Journal of Diabetes, 12 (6). pp. 883-892.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

Download (458kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


BACKGROUND People with diabetes and peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a high risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Prior research suggests that medical therapies aimed to control modifiable risk factors are poorly implemented in patients with PAD.

AIM To examine the association between the control of modifiable risk factors, estimated by the novel PAD-medical score, and the incidence of MACE in people with PAD and diabetes.

METHODS Participants were recruited from out-patient clinics if they had a diagnosis of both PAD and diabetes. Control of reversible risk factors was assessed by a new composite measure, the PAD-medical score. This score takes into account the control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose, smoking and prescription of an anti-platelet. Participants were followed to record incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death (MACE). The association of PAD-medical score with MACE was assessed using Cox propor-tional hazard analyses adjusting for age, sex and prior history of ischemic heart disease and stroke.

RESULTS Between 2002 and 2020, a total of 424 participants with carotid artery disease (n = 63), aortic or peripheral aneurysm (n = 121) or lower limb ischemia (n = 240) were prospectively recruited, and followed for a median duration (inter-quartile range) of 2.0 (0.2–4.4) years. Only 33 (7.8%) participants had the optimal PAD-medical score of five, with 318 (75%) scoring at least three out of five. There were 89 (21.0%) participants that had at least one MACE during the follow-up period. A one-unit higher PAD-medical score was associated with lower risk of MACE (HR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98) after adjusting for other risk factors.

CONCLUSION The PAD-medical score provides a simple way to assess the control of modifiable risk factors targeted by medical management aimed to reduce the incidence of MACE.

Item ID: 69589
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1948-9358
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2021 01:37
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200104 Prevention of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 704
Last 12 Months: 17
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page