Review of Nepal’s Protected Area Laws in relation to human wildlife conflict

Bhattarai, Babu Ram, Wright, Wendy, and Morgan, Damian (2021) Review of Nepal’s Protected Area Laws in relation to human wildlife conflict. In: Scott, James A., (ed.) Protected Areas: management, benefits and social impacts. Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology . Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, pp. 167-198.

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Laws and policies are critical in facilitating positive or negative outcomes where humans and wildlife have potential to interact. This chapter provides a historical overview of Nepal’s protected areas and reviews the Nepalese conservation laws to explore whether they, through enactment, have the capacity to reduce the frequency and consequently the impact of human wildlife conflict (HWC). This chapter also provides useful insights for the formulation of new conservation laws, or the revision of existing conservation laws, to prevent and mitigate HWC.

Nepal’s conservation laws were formulated in the early 1970s, when modern protected areas were first being established in the country. Initially, Nepal followed the Yellowstone Model, an exclusionary approach involving the removal of local people from areas within the boundaries of the new National Parks. The intent was to separate humans and protected areas, measures that are often commended as effective in reducing interactions between humans and wildlife. Over time, the gradual relaxation of strict rules of exclusion, including the granting of rights to local people to access resources inside protected areas, have encouraged a move towards a coexistence approach. This later approach (coexistence) condoned, or at least allowed for, more contact between humans and wildlife, and may have increased the potential for HWC. Subsequent amendments to the conservation laws - including provisions for wildlife population management - may have gone some way toward reducing HWC; however, these amendments lack clarity and have been poorly implemented. This article recommends active implementation of laws that may reduce interactions between humans and wildlife and suggests improved compensation policies for wildlife damage.

Item ID: 69290
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 978-1-5361-9358-9
Copyright Information: Copyright © by Nova Science Pubishers
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2021 00:17
FoR Codes: 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410404 Environmental management @ 80%
48 LAW AND LEGAL STUDIES > 4802 Environmental and resources law > 480299 Environmental and resources law not elsewhere classified @ 20%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1806 Terrestrial systems and management > 180601 Assessment and management of terrestrial ecosystems @ 80%
23 LAW, POLITICS AND COMMUNITY SERVICES > 2399 Other law, politics and community services > 239999 Other law, politics and community services not elsewhere classified @ 20%
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