Prediction models applying machine learning to oral cavity cancer outcomes: a systematic review

Adeoye, John, Tan, Jia Yan, Choi, Siu-Wai, and Thomson, Peter (2021) Prediction models applying machine learning to oral cavity cancer outcomes: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 154. 104557.

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Objectives: Machine learning platforms are now being introduced into modern oncological practice for classification and prediction of patient outcomes. To determine the current status of the application of these learning models as adjunctive decision-making tools in oral cavity cancer management, this systematic review aims to summarize the accuracy of machine-learning based models for disease outcomes.

Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SciELO, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched up until December 21, 2020. Pertinent articles detailing the development and accuracy of machine learning prediction models for oral cavity cancer outcomes were selected in a two-stage process. Quality assessment was conducted using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool and results of base studies were qualitatively synthesized by all authors. Outcomes of interest were malignant transformation of precancer lesions, cervical lymph node metastasis, as well as treatment response, and prognosis of oral cavity cancer.

Results: Twenty-seven articles out of 950 citations identified from electronic and manual searching were included in this study. Five studies had low bias concerns on the QUIPS tool. Prediction of malignant transformation, cervical lymph node metastasis, treatment response, and prognosis were reported in three, six, eight, and eleven articles respectively. Accuracy of these learning models on the internal or external validation sets ranged from 0.85 – 0.97 for malignant transformation prediction, 0.78 – 0.91 for cervical lymph node metastasis prediction, 0.64 – 1.00 for treatment response prediction, and 0.71 – 0.99 for prognosis prediction. In general, most trained algorithms predicting these outcomes performed better than alternate methods of prediction. We also found that models including molecular markers in training data had better accuracy estimates for malignant transformation, treatment response, and prognosis prediction.

Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms have a satisfactory to excellent accuracy for predicting three of four oral cavity cancer outcomes i.e., malignant transformation, nodal metastasis, and prognosis. However, considering the training approach of many available classifiers, these models may not be streamlined enough for clinical application currently.

Item ID: 69087
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1872-8243
Keywords: oral cavity cancer; machine learning; deep learning; artificial intelligence
Copyright Information: © 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Date Deposited: 22 Aug 2021 22:44
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3203 Dentistry > 320305 Oral and maxillofacial surgery @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3211 Oncology and carcinogenesis > 321104 Cancer therapy (excl. chemotherapy and radiation therapy) @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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