The role of organic compounds in the recovery of valuable metals from primary and secondary sources: a mini-review

Okonkwo, Emenike George, Wheatley, Greg, and He, Yinghe (2021) The role of organic compounds in the recovery of valuable metals from primary and secondary sources: a mini-review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 174. 105813.

[img] PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

View at Publisher Website:


Growing quantities of end-of-life batteries, increasing demand for critical metals and the depleting reserve of high grade ores have necessitated the need to explore secondary sources such as spent lithium ion batteries (LiBs). Among various processes developed for the recovery of materials from the LiBs, the hydrometallurgical approach is mainstream due to its flexibility and efficiency. However, the cost and environmental impacts of hydrometallurgical approaches depend on the reagents used. Organic compounds such as organic acids and biomasses as lixiviants and reductants are considered cheaper and more eco-friendly alternatives to their inorganic counterparts conventionally used. This review summarises the progresses made in the use of organic based substances as reductants in reductive leaching of spent LiBs and low grade ores. It also discusses factors affecting leaching mechanisms, possible reaction chemistries and kinetics. Analysis of the available data in the literature suggests that the use of organic-based compounds could achieve comparable recovery but with much reduced adverse environmental impacts in the extraction of metals from spent LiBs. Further, technology development in the area will benefit from application of key knowledge on the recovery of metals from low grade ores. The review concludes with a summary of current challenges facing the industrial application of organic compounds and highlights future perspectives on organic acids as lixiviants in a mixed acid leaching system.

Item ID: 68912
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-0658
Keywords: Spent lithium-ion batteries, Battery recycling, Low-grade ores, Reductants Organics, Reductive leaching
Copyright Information: © 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2021 22:55
FoR Codes: 40 ENGINEERING > 4004 Chemical engineering > 400404 Electrochemical energy storage and conversion @ 100%
SEO Codes: 17 ENERGY > 1703 Energy storage, distribution and supply > 170399 Energy storage, distribution and supply not elsewhere classified @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 3
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page