Getting to zero: micro-foci of malaria in the Solomon Islands requires stratified control

Russell, Tanya L., Grignard, Lynn, Apairamo, Alan, Kama, Nathan, Bobogare, Albino, Drakeley, Chris, and Burkot, Thomas R. (2021) Getting to zero: micro-foci of malaria in the Solomon Islands requires stratified control. Malaria Journal, 20. 248.

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Abstract

Background: The Solomon Islands has made significant progress in the control of malaria through vector control, access and use of improved diagnostics and therapeutic drugs. As transmission is reduced there is a need to understand variations in transmission risk at the provincial and village levels to stratify control methods.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of malaria in humans was conducted in the Solomon Islands during April 2018. Nineteen villages across 4 provinces were included. The presence of Plasmodium species parasites in blood samples was detected using PCR.

Results: Blood samples were analysed from 1,914 participants. The prevalence of DNA of Plasmodium falciparum was 1.2 % (n = 23) and for Plasmodium vivax was 1.5 % (n = 28). 22 % (n = 5/23) of P. falciparum DNA positive participants were febrile and 17 % of P. vivax DNA positive participants (n = 5/28). The prevalence of both P. falciparum and P. vivax was extremely spatially heterogeneous. For P. falciparum, in particular, only 2 small foci of transmission were identified among 19 villages. Plasmodium falciparum infections were uniformly distributed across age groups. Insecticide-treated bed net use the night prior to the survey was reported by 63 % of participants and significantly differed by province.

Conclusions: Malaria transmission across the Solomon Islands has become increasingly fragmented, affecting fewer villages and provinces. The majority of infections were afebrile suggesting the need for strong active case detection with radical cure with primaquine for P. vivax. Village-level stratification of targeted interventions based on passive and active case detection data could support the progress towards a more cost-effective and successful elimination programme.

Item ID: 68773
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Solomon Islands, Malaria elimination, Heterogeneous transmission
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Funders: Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Global Good Fund I, LLC.
Research Data: https://doi.org/10.25903/4054-3m75
Date Deposited: 26 Jul 2021 22:25
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4299 Other health sciences > 429999 Other health sciences not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2099 Other health > 209999 Other health not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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