Glacial-interglacial (MIS 1-10) migrations of the Subtropical Front across ODP Site 1119, Canterbury Bight, Southwest Pacific Ocean

Carter, R.M., Gammon, P.R., and Millwood, L. (2004) Glacial-interglacial (MIS 1-10) migrations of the Subtropical Front across ODP Site 1119, Canterbury Bight, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Marine Geology, 205 (1). pp. 29-58.

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Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1119 is located at water depth 395 m near the subtropical front (STF; here represented by the Southland Front), just downslope from the shelf edge of eastern South Island, New Zealand. The upper 86.19 metres composite depth (mod) of Site 1119 sediment was deposited at an average sedimentation rate of 34 cm/kyr during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1-8 (0-252 ka), and is underlain across a ∼25 kyr intra-MIS 8 unconformity by MIS 8.5-11 (277-367 ka) and older sediment deposited at ∼14 cm/kyr. A time scale is assigned to Site 1119 using radiocarbon dates for the period back to ∼39 ka, and, prior to then, by matching its climatic record with that of the Vostok ice core, which it closely resembles. Four palaeoceanographic proxy measures for surface water masses vary together with the sandy-muddy, glacial-interglacial (G/I) cyclicity at the site. Interglacial intervals are characterised by heavy δ13C, high colour reflectance (a proxy for carbonate content), low γ-ray (a proxy for clay content) and light δ18O; conversely, glacial intervals exhibit light δ13C, low reflectance, high γ-ray and heavy δ18O signatures. Early interglacial intervals are represented by silty clays with 10-105-cm-thick beds of sharp-based (Chondrites-burrowed), shelly, graded, fine sand. The sands are rich in foraminifera, and were deposited distant from the shoreline under the influence of longitudinal flow in relatively deep water. Glacial intervals comprise mostly micaceous silty clay, though with some thin (2-10 cm thick) sands present also at peak cold periods, and contain the cold-water scallop Zygochlamys delicatula. Interglacial sandy intervals are characterised by relatively low sedimentation rates of 5-32 cm/kyr; cold climate intervals MIS 10, 6 and 2 have successively higher sedimentation rates of 45, 69 and 140 cm/kyr. Counter-intuitively, and forced by the bathymetric control of a laterally-moving shoreline during G/I and I/G transitions, the 1119 core records a southeasterly (seaward) movement of the STF during early glacial periods, accompanied by the incursion of subtropical water (STW) above the site, and northwesterly (landward) movement during late glacial and interglacial times, resulting in a dominant influence then of subantarctic surface water (SAW). The history of passage of these different water masses at the site is clearly delineated by their characteristic δ13C values. The intervals of thin, graded sands-muds which occur within MIS 2-3, 6, 7.4 and 10 indicate the onset at times of peak cold of intermittent bottom currents caused by strengthened and expanded frontal flows along the STF, which at such times lay near Site 1119 in close proximity to seaward-encroaching subantarctic waters within the Bounty gyre. In common with other nearby Southern Hemisphere records, the cold period which represents the last glacial maximum lasted between ∼23-18 ka at Site 1119, during which time the STF and Subantarctic Front (SAF) probably merged into a single intense frontal zone around the head of the adjacent Bounty Trough.

Item ID: 6845
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1872-6151
Keywords: Ocean Drilling Program (ODP); Subtropical Front (STF); Subtropical Water (STW); Subantarctic Water (SAW); glacial–interglacial change; Southland Front; cyclic sedimentation; sea level; New Zealand; Southwest Pacific
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2010 23:56
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040310 Sedimentology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 100%
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