The effects of physical decontamination methods on zirconia implant surfaces: a systematic review

Tan, Nathan Chiang Ping, Khan, Ahsen, Antunes, Elsa, Miller, Catherine M., and Sharma, Dileep (2021) The effects of physical decontamination methods on zirconia implant surfaces: a systematic review. Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science, 51 (4). e24.

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Abstract

Purpose: Peri-implantitis therapy and implant maintenance are fundamental practices to enhance the longevity of zirconia implants. However, the use of physical decontamination methods, including hand instruments, polishing devices, ultrasonic scalers, and laser systems, might damage the implant surfaces. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of physical decontamination methods on zirconia implant surfaces.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted using 5 electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane. Hand searching of the OpenGrey database, reference lists, and 6 selected dental journals was also performed to identify relevant studies satisfying the eligibility criteria.

Results: Overall, 1049 unique studies were identified, of which 11 studies were deemed suitable for final review. Air-abrasive devices with glycine powder, prophylaxis cups, and ultrasonic scalers with non-metal tips were found to cause minimal to no damage to implant-grade zirconia surfaces. However, hand instruments and ultrasonic scalers with metal tips have the potential to cause major damage to zirconia surfaces. In terms of laser systems, diode lasers appear to be the most promising, as no surface alterations were reported following their use.

Conclusion: Air-abrasive devices and prophylaxis cups are safe for zirconia implant decontamination due to preservation of the implant surface integrity. In contrast, hand instruments and ultrasonic scalers with metal tips should be used with caution. Recommendations for the use of laser systems could not be fully established due to significant heterogeneity among included studies, but diode lasers may be the best-suited system. Further research—specifically, randomised controlled trials—would further confirm the effects of physical decontamination methods in a clinical setting.

Item ID: 68411
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2093-2286
Keywords: Dental implants; Decontamination; Dental instruments; Surface properties; Zirconium
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2021. Korean Academy of Periodontology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Funders: Australian Denal Research Federation (ADRF), James Cook University (JCU)
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2021 00:06
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3203 Dentistry > 320302 Dental materials and equipment @ 25%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3203 Dentistry > 320306 Oral implantology @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3203 Dentistry > 320310 Periodontics @ 25%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
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