Energy transparency for deeply embedded programs

Georgiou, Kyriakos, Kerrison, Steve, Zbigniew, Chamski, and Eder, Kerstin (2017) Energy transparency for deeply embedded programs. ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code Optimization, 14 (1). 8.

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Abstract

Energy transparency is a concept that makes a program’s energy consumption visible, from hardware up to software, through the different system layers. Such transparency can enable energy optimizations at each layer and between layers, as well as help both programmers and operating systems make energy-aware decisions. In this article, we focus on deeply embedded devices, typically used for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, and demonstrate how to enable energy transparency through existing static resource analysis (SRA) techniques and a new target-agnostic profiling technique, without hardware energy measurements. Our novel mapping technique enables software energy consumption estimations at a higher level than the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), namely the LLVM intermediate representation (IR) level, and therefore introduces energy transparency directly to the LLVM optimizer. We apply our energy estimation techniques to a comprehensive set of benchmarks, including single- and multithreaded embedded programs from two commonly used concurrency patterns: task farms and pipelines. Using SRA, our LLVM IR results demonstrate a high accuracy with a deviation in the range of 1% from the ISA SRA. Our profiling technique captures the actual energy consumption at the LLVM IR level with an average error of 3%.

Item ID: 68104
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1544-3973
Copyright Information: © 2017 ACM
Projects and Grants: European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 318337, ENTRA: Whole-Systems Energy Transparency, European Commission under Grant Agreement No. 611004, ICT-Energy, ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking under grant agreement 621429, EMC2
Date Deposited: 02 Jul 2021 04:30
FoR Codes: 46 INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SCIENCES > 4612 Software engineering > 461207 Software quality, processes and metrics @ 33%
46 INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SCIENCES > 4612 Software engineering > 461208 Software testing, verification and validation @ 33%
46 INFORMATION AND COMPUTING SCIENCES > 4606 Distributed computing and systems software > 460606 Energy-efficient computing @ 34%
SEO Codes: 17 ENERGY > 1701 Energy efficiency > 170199 Energy efficiency not elsewhere classified @ 50%
22 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES > 2204 Information systems, technologies and services > 220401 Application software packages @ 50%
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