Evaluation of the durability of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Guatemala

Castellanos, María Eugenia, Rodas, Soledad, Juárez, José Guillermo, Lol, Juan Carlos, Chanquin, Sayra, Morales, Zoraida, Vizcaino, Lucrecia, Smith, Stephen C., Vanden Eng, Jodi, Woldu, Henok G., Lenhart, Audrey, and Padilla, Norma (2021) Evaluation of the durability of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Guatemala. Malaria Journal, 20. 219.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03722...



Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are widely used for the prevention and control of malaria. In Guatemala, since 2006, ITNs have been distributed free of charge in the highest risk malaria-endemic areas and constitute one of the primary vector control measures in the country. Despite relying on ITNs for almost 15 years, there is a lack of data to inform the timely replacement of ITNs whose effectiveness becomes diminished by routine use.


The survivorship, physical integrity, insecticide content and bio-efficacy of ITNs were assessed through cross-sectional surveys conducted at 18, 24 and 32 months after a 2012 distribution of PermaNet® 2.0 in a malaria focus in Guatemala. A working definition of ‘LLIN providing adequate protection’ was developed based on the combination of the previous parameters and usage of the net. A total of 988 ITNs were analysed (290 at 18 months, 349 at 24 months and 349 at 32 months).


The functional survivorship of bed nets decreased over time, from 92% at 18 months, to 81% at 24 months and 69% at 32 months. Independent of the time of the survey, less than 80% of the bed nets that were still present in the household were reported to have been used the night before. The proportion of bed nets categorized as “in good condition” per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of the total hole surface area, diminished from 77% to 18 months to 58% at 32 months. The portion of ITNs with deltamethrin concentration less than 10 mg/m2 increased over time. Among the bed nets for which bioassays were conducted, the percentage that met WHO criteria for efficacy dropped from 90% to 18 months to 52% at 32 months. The proportion of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) providing adequate protection was 38% at 24 months and 21% at 32 months.


At 32 months, only one in five of the LLINs distributed in the campaign provided adequate protection in terms of survivorship, physical integrity, bio-efficacy and usage. Efforts to encourage the community to retain, use, and properly care for the LLINs may improve their impact. Durability assessments should be included in future campaigns.

Item ID: 68045
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: insecticide-treated bed nets; malaria, durability, survivorship, insecticide content, bio-efficacy
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Funders: US Agency for International Development (USAID), Amazone Malaria Initiative (AMI), CDC Cooperative Agreement Guatemala (CDCCAG), Universidad del Valle de Guatemala
Projects and Grants: CDCCAG No. 5U01GH001003
Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2021 23:57
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420202 Disease surveillance @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420207 Major global burdens of disease @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200404 Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response) @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 800
Last 12 Months: 95
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page