Challenges in the diagnostic performance of parasitological and molecular tests in the surveillance of African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia

Mulenga, Gloria, Namangala, Boniface, Chilongo, Kalinga, Hayashida, Kyoko, Mubamba, Chrisborn, Henning, Lars, and Gummow, Bruce (2021) Challenges in the diagnostic performance of parasitological and molecular tests in the surveillance of African Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 6 (2). 68.

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Abstract

African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) control programs rely on active case detection through the screening of animals reared in disease endemic areas. This study compared the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy in the detection of trypanosomes in cattle blood in Mambwe, a rural district in eastern Zambia. Blood samples were collected from 227 cattle and tested for infection with trypanosomes using microscopy and Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS)-PCR. Microscopy on the buffy coat detected 17 cases, whilst thin and thick smears detected 26 cases and 28 cases, respectively. In total, microscopy detected 40 cases. ITS-PCR-filter paper (FP) on blood spots stored on FP detected 47 cases, and ITS-PCR-FTA on blood spots stored on Whatman FTA Classic cards detected 83 cases. Using microscopy as the gold standard, ITS-PCR-FTA had a better specificity (SP) and sensitivity (SE) (SP = 72.2%; SE = 77.5%; kappa = 0.35) than ITS-PCR-FP (SP = 88%; SE = 60%; kappa = 0.45). The prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l. was higher on ITS-PCR-FTA (19/227) than on ITS-PCR-FP (0/227). Our results illustrate the complexities around trypanosomiasis surveillance in rural Africa and provide evidence of the impact that field conditions and staff training can have on diagnostic results, which in turn impact the success of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programs in the region.

Item ID: 67999
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2414-6366
Copyright Information: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 14 Jul 2021 06:33
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420699 Public health not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2005 Specific population health (excl. Indigenous health) > 200599 Specific population health (excl. Indigenous health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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