Pretreatment with an adenosine A1 receptor agonist and lidocaine: a possible alternative to myocardial ischemic preconditioning

Canyon, Sarah J., and Dobson, Geoffrey P. (2005) Pretreatment with an adenosine A1 receptor agonist and lidocaine: a possible alternative to myocardial ischemic preconditioning. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 130 (2). pp. 371-377.

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Objective: The heart possesses an extraordinary ability to remember short episodes of sublethal ischemia and reperfusion (angina), which protects the myocardium and coronary vasculature from a subsequent lethal insult, a phenomenon known as ischemic preconditioning. A therapeutic goal for more than 2 decades has been to develop a pharmacologic mimetic comparable with ischemic preconditioning. Our aim was to investigate the preconditioning effect of a new combinatorial therapy targeting adenosine A1 receptors and voltage-dependent sodium fast channels in the in vivo rat model of regional ischemia.

Methods: Ischemia-reperfusion was achieved by placing a reversible tie around the left coronary artery in anesthetized and ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 37). Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups: (1) saline control (n = 13); (2) ischemic preconditioning (n = 6); (3) lidocaine only (608 μg · kg^−1·min^−1, n = 5); (4) adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA; 5 μg/kg, n = 7); and (5) CCPA plus lidocaine (n = 6). Ischemic preconditioning was achieved by using 3 cycles of ischemia and reperfusion lasting 3 minutes each. Lidocaine was infused continuously 5 minutes before and throughout 30 minutes of ischemia and ceased at reperfusion. A bolus of CCPA was infused 5 minutes before ligation along with a constant infusion of lidocaine (as above). All animals were reperfused for 120 minutes for infarct size measurement.

Results: Fifty-four percent of saline control rats, 17% of ischemic preconditioning-treated rats, and 29% of CCPA-treated rats died during ischemia from ventricular fibrillation. Infarct size of saline control animals was 61% ± 5%. Pretreating with CCPA and lidocaine infusion resulted in no deaths, no severe arrhythmias, and significant infarct size reduction compared with that seen in saline control animals (P < .05). Remarkably, infarct size reduction in CCPA plus lidocaine-treated rats (12% ± 4%) was equivalent to that achieved with ischemic preconditioning (11% ± 3%), whereas infarct size in rats undergoing CCPA-only and lidocaine-only treatments was 42% ± 7% and 60% ± 6%, respectively. Although CCPA plus lidocaine treatment reduced heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and systolic pressure during ischemia, no correlation was found between these variables and infarct size reduction.

Conclusion: We conclude that activating adenosine A1 receptor subtype with CCPA and concomitantly modulating sodium fast channels with lidocaine was comparable with ischemic preconditioning and might offer a new therapeutic window to minimize myocardial damage during surgical ischemia and reperfusion.

Item ID: 6718
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1097-685X
Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2010 02:23
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1116 Medical Physiology > 111603 Systems Physiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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