Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea

Vinit, Rebecca, Timinao, Lincoln, Bubun, Nakei, Katusele, Michelle, Robinson, Leanne J., Kaman, Peter, Sakur, Muker, Makita, Leo, Reimer, Lisa, Schofield, Louis, Pomat, William, Mueller, Ivo, Laman, Moses, Freeman, Tim, and Karl, Stephan (2020) Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea. Nature Communications, 11 (7). 3646.

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Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Longlasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly. Here, we present observations documenting decreased bioefficacy of unused LLINs with manufacturing dates between 2013 and 2019 collected from villages and LLIN distributors in PNG. Specifically, we show that of n = 167 tested LLINs manufactured after 2013, only 17% are fulfilling the required World Health Organisation bioefficacy standards of ≥ 80% 24 h mortality or ≥ 95% 60 min knockdown in bioassays with pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles farauti mosquitoes. In contrast, all (100%, n = 25) LLINs with manufacturing dates prior to 2013 are meeting these bioefficacy standards. These results suggest that decreased bioefficacy of LLINs is contributing to the malaria resurgence in PNG and of LLIN quality is warranted.

Item ID: 67090
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2041-1723
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Funders: Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFFATM), James Cook University (JCU), Wellcome Trust (WT), National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: WT International Masters Fellowship, NHMRC Career Development Fellowship
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2021 00:28
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4203 Health services and systems > 420312 Implementation science and evaluation @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4206 Public health > 420605 Preventative health care @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200404 Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response) @ 50%
20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200104 Prevention of human diseases and conditions @ 50%
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