Control of human toxoplasmosis

Smith, Nicholas C., Goulart, Cibelly, Hayward, Jenni A., Kupz, Andreas, Miller, Catherine M., and van Dooren, Giel C. (2021) Control of human toxoplasmosis. International Journal for Parasitology, 51 (2-3). pp. 95-121.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite that is able to infect any nucleated cell in any warm-blooded animal. Toxoplasma gondii infects around 2 billion people and, whilst only a small percentage of infected people will suffer serious disease, the prevalence of the parasite makes it one of the most damaging zoonotic diseases in the world. Toxoplasmosis is a disease with multiple manifestations: it can cause a fatal encephalitis in immunosuppressed people; if first contracted during pregnancy, it can cause miscarriage or congenital defects in the neonate; and it can cause serious ocular disease, even in immunocompetent people. The disease has a complex epidemiology, being transmitted by ingestion of oocysts that are shed in the faeces of definitive feline hosts and contaminate water, soil and crops, or by consumption of intracellular cysts in undercooked meat from intermediate hosts. In this review we examine current and future approaches to control toxoplasmosis, which encompass a variety of measures that target different components of the life cycle of T. gondii. These include: education programs about the parasite and avoidance of contact with infectious stages; biosecurity and sanitation to ensure food and water safety; chemo- and immunotherapeutics to control active infections and disease; prophylactic options to prevent acquisition of infection by livestock and cyst formation in meat; and vaccines to prevent shedding of oocysts by definitive feline hosts.

Item ID: 66923
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-0135
Keywords: Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Nanotechnology, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Vaccination
Copyright Information: (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Australian Society for Parasitology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian Government (AG), Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC GNT1128911, AG GNT1140709, NHMRC GNT11182369, ARC DP200100483
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2021 01:34
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320404 Cellular immunology @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3207 Medical microbiology > 320704 Medical parasitology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200105 Treatment of human diseases and conditions @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 817
Last 12 Months: 149
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page