Eccentric strength assessment of hamstring muscles with new technologies: a systematic review of current methods and clinical implications

Claudino, João Gustavo, Cardoso Filho, Carlos Alberto, Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto, Gonçalves, Luiz Gilherme, Couto, Crislaine Rangel, Quintão, Roberto Chiari, Reis, Guilherme Fialho, de Oliveira Júnior, Otaviano, Amadio, Alberto Carlos, Boullosa, Daniel, and Serrão, Júlio Cerca (2021) Eccentric strength assessment of hamstring muscles with new technologies: a systematic review of current methods and clinical implications. Sports Medicine - Open, 7. 10.

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Background: Given the severe economic and performance implications of hamstring injuries, there are different attempts to identify their risk factors for subsequently developing injury prevention strategies to reduce the risk of these injuries. One of the strategies reported in the scientific literature is the application of interventions with eccentric exercises. To verify the effectiveness of these interventions, different eccentric strength measurements have been used with low-cost devices as alternatives to the widespread used isokinetic dynamometers and the technically limited handheld dynamometers. Therefore, the purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize the findings of the scientific literature related to the evaluation of eccentric strength of hamstring muscles with these new technologies.

Methods: Systematic searches through the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, from inception up to April 2020, were conducted for peer reviewed articles written in English, reporting eccentric strength of hamstrings assessed by devices, different to isokinetic and handheld dynamometers, in athletes.

Results: Seventeen studies were finally included in the review with 4 different devices used and 18 parameters identified. The pooled sample consisted of 2893 participants (97% male and 3% female: 22 ± 4 years). The parameters most used were peak force (highest and average), peak torque (average and highest), and between-limb imbalance (left-to-right limb ratio). There is inconsistency regarding the association between eccentric hamstrings strength and both injury risk and athletic performance. There is no standardized definition or standardization of the calculation of the used parameters.

Conclusions: The current evidence is insufficient to recommend a practical guide for sports professionals to use these new technologies in their daily routine, due to the need for standardized definitions and calculations. Furthermore, more studies with female athletes are warranted. Despite these limitations, the eccentric strength of hamstring muscles assessed by different devices may be recommended for monitoring the neuromuscular status of athletes.

Item ID: 66864
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2198-9761
Keywords: Athletic performance, Flywheel, Knee flexors, Muscle injury, Neuromuscular status, NordBord, Screening, Strain
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2022 03:21
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