Strongyloides stercoralisprevalence and diagnostics in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic

Chankongsin, Somaphone, Wampfler, Rahel, Ruf, Marie-Therese, Odermatt, Peter, Marti, Hanspeter, Nickel, Beatrice, Keoluangkhot, Valy, and Neumayr, Andreas (2020) Strongyloides stercoralisprevalence and diagnostics in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9 (1). 133.

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Background: Despite the high prevalence of strongyloidiasis in the Laotian population, Laotian hospitals still lack diagnostic capacity to appropriately diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections. This cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among hospitalized patients treated at Mahosot Hospital, the primary reference hospital of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), and to validate feasible methods for diagnosing S. stercoralis infection at hospital’s laboratory.

Methods: Between September and December 2018, stool samples of 104 inpatients were investigated for S. stercoralis infection by wet smear, Baermann technique, Koga Agar plate culture (KAPC), and real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR) at the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane. The sensitivity, the specificity, the negative predictive value (NPV) of each diagnostic test, as well as their combination(s) was calculated using a composite reference standard (CRS). The correlation of the different test methods was assessed by chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Cohen’s kappa coefficient was used to assess the diagnostic agreement of the different test methods.

Results: The overall prevalence of S. stercoralis infections among the study population was 33.4%. The cumulative infection prevalence statistically significantly increased from the lowest age group of 40 years and below (22.4%), to the medium (40.0%) and to the oldest age group of 61 year and above (72.7%)(P = 0.003). The cumulative infection prevalence of CRS was considerably higher in male (40.4%) compared to female patients (28.1%), but not statistically different (P = 0.184). The diagnostic sensitivity of Baermann technique, KAPC, RTD-PCR, and the combination of Baermann technique and KAPC were 60.0, 60.0, 74.3, and 77.1%, respectively. Only 13 patients (37.1%) of the total 35 S. stercoralis patients diagnosed with any technique had a simultaneously positive diagnostic test with Baermann, KAPC and RTD-PCR.

Conclusions: We identified Baermann technique and KAPC to be currently the most feasible and implementable standard methods for diagnosing S. stercoralis at a hospital setting such as Mahosot Hospital and provincial and district hospitals in Lao PDR and other low- and middle income countries in Southeast Asia.

Item ID: 66198
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2049-9957
Keywords: Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloidiasis, Wet smear, Baermann method, Koga agar plate culture, Real time detection PCR
Copyright Information: © The Author(s). 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Date Deposited: 17 Feb 2021 18:55
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320211 Infectious diseases @ 100%
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